BLOG

Posted in books

SAPIENS

Valla bu kitabi o kadar begendim ki, ozetini yazarken kitabi yeniden yazdigimi farkettim! Biraz uzun oldu o yuzden soyle kisa bir icindekiler yapayim, siz ilgilendiginiz kisima atlamakta ozgursunuz:

  1. GIRIS: Insan irki’na giris
  2. ANATOMIK DEGISIMLER: Beyin’in, sinir aglari’nin, dogum kanali’nin evrimi
  3. NEDEN SOSYALIZ: Evrimde yatan sir
  4. GIDEREK ACIMASIZLASAN INSAN: Nasil cevreye, hayvanlara bu kadar duyarsiz hale geldik? Neden bugun birbirimizi olduruyoruz?
  5. KURGU GUCU: Insani diger memelilerden ayiran onemli bir ozellik
  6. YASASIN AVCI TOPLAYICI ZAMANLARIMIZ KAHROLSUN TARIMA GECIS
  7. HOMOSAPIENS: EKOLOJIK SERI KATIL
  8. TARIM DEVRIMI: TARIHIN EN BUYUK ALDATMACASI: Daha cok calisip daha kotu beslenen, guvenlik sorunu yasayan, alana saplanip ona muhtac kalan bir irka donusmek. Ama neden?
  9. EVCILLESTIRME: Bilinen ilk ‘evcil’ bugday ve hayvanlari evcillestirme sureci nasil gelisti? Zalim teknikler…
  10. TARIMA GECIS ‘BIZIM’ KULTURUMUZE BAKIS ACIMIZI DEGISTIRDI: Hem de nasil!
  11. BU KADAR FARKLI OLMAMIZA RAGMEN ‘ISBIRLIGI’NI NASIL SAGLIYORUZ?
  12. HAYALI DUZEN ISTEKLERIMIZI NASIL SEKILLENDIRIYOR?: Milletler, para ve din
  13. HAYALI HIYERARSILER: Kadin-erkek, irk kast ustunlugu vs. neden var?
  14. PARA: Nasil basladi, nasil gidiyor
  15. DIN: Neden?
  16. ASLINDA SAPIENS EN BARISCIL CAGINDA, UZULMEYIN! : Yazardan iyimser bir yaklasim
  17. MUTLU MU SAPIENS?: Bu kadar seyi bir amac icin yapiyor olmali Sapiens irki, peki amac mutlu olmak mi?
  18. SON SOZ

___________________________________

1. GIRIS

Tarihin akisini 3 onemli devrim sekillendirdi:

  1. Yaklasik 70 bin yil once baslayan Bilissel Devrim
  2. 12 bin yil once bunu hizlandiran Tarim Devrimi
  3. 500 yil once baslayan Bilimsel Devrim

Bu kitap, bu uc devrimin insanlari ve diger organizmalari nasil etkilediginin hikayesini anlatiyor.

Yalnizca 6 milyon yil once, tek bir disi maymunun iki kizi oldu. Bunlardan biri tum sempanzelerin atasi olurken, digeri de bizim buyukannemiz oldu.

Insanlar ilk olarak 2.5 milyon yil once Dogu afrika’da, “Guney Maymunu” anlamina gelen Australopithecus adi verilen bir maymun cinsinden evrimlesti.

Avrupa ve bati Asya’daki insanlar cogunlukla “Neandertaller” olarak adlandirilan Homo neandertalensis’e evrildiler. Asya’nin daha dogu bolgeleri “Dik Adam” anlamina gelen Homo erectus tarafindan mesken tutulmustu. Endinezya’daki Java adasinda  tropic yasama uygun Homo soloensis, denizlerin yukselmesi dolayisiyla yasanan kitliktan giderek cuce boyutlara evrilen Homo floresiensis olmuslardir.

human evrimi

Dogu Afrikada’ki evrim de durmadi. Insanligin besigi “Rudolg Golu Insani” anlamina gelen Homo rudolfensis, “Caliskan insan” Homo ergaster ve hic de alcak gonullu davranmayarak “Zeki insan” adini verdigimiz turumuz Homo sapiens gibi pek cok ture ev sahipligi yapti.

Yaklasik 2 milyon yil onceden 10 bin yil oncesine kadar dunya ayni anda pek cok insan turune ev sahipligi yapmistir.

2. ANATOMIK DEGISIMLER

Insanlarin diger hayvanlara kiyasla olaganustu buyuk beyinleri vardir. 60 kilogram agirligindaki memelilerin ortalama beyin hacmi 200 santimetre kuptur. En erken erkek ve kadinin, 2,5 milyon yil once beyinleri yaklasik 600 santimetre kuptu. Modern Sapiens’in ortalama beyniyse 1200-1400 santimetre kuptur. Neandertal beyni ise daha da buyuktu.

Ates beynimizi buyuttu…

Atesin en onemli katkisi pisirmekti. Insanlarin normalde sindiremedikleri – bugday, pirinc ve patates gibi – yiyecekler, pisirebilme becerisi sayesinde su anda beslenmemizin temelini olusturuyor.

Ates besinlerin kimyasini degistirmekle kalmadi, onlarin biyolojisini de degistirdi. Pisirmek, gidalarda bulunan parazit ve mikroplari yok ettigi gibi, insanlarin eskiden beri cok sevdigi meyve, kabuklu yemis, bocek ve lesler pisirildiklerinde daha rahat cignenip sindirilebiliyordu. Sempanzeler gunlerinin 5 saatini cig besinleri cignemeye harcarken, insanlarin pismis besinleri yemeleri icin 1 saat yeterli oluyordu.

Uzun bagirsaklar ve buyuk beyinler cok ciddi enerji tukettiklerinden, ikisine birden ayni anda sahip olmak cok zordur. Yiyecekleri pisirme, bagirsaklari kisaltip enerji tuketimini azaltarak, Neandertallerin ve Sapiens’in devasa beyinlerinin onunu acti.

Bununla ilgili cok guzel bir TED talk izlemistim ben. Isterseniz siz de bir goz atin:

Arkaik insanlar genis beyinlerinin bedelini iki sekilde odediler:

  1. Birincisi, gida ararken daha cabuk zaman harcadilar.
  2. Ikincisi, kaslari koreldi. Savunmadan egitime para aktaran bir yonetim gibi, insanlar bisepslerden noronlara enerji aktardilar.

Ellerimiz daha cok is yapabildikce, ellerin sahipleri de daha basarili hale geldiler, dolayisiyla evrimsel baski avuclarda ve parmaklarda daha yogun bir sinir agi ve kaslarin gelismesini sagladi.

brain evolution

Kadinlar daha da fazlasini  odemek zorunda kaldi. Dik bir durus daha dar kalcalar demekti ve bu da dogum kanalini daraltiyordu, ustelik ayni anda bebeklerin de beyni giderek buyuyordu. Zamanla erken dogum yapan kadinlar daha cok hayatta kaldilar ve daha cok cocuk sahibi oldular; dogal secilim bu sekilde erken dogumlara hayatta kalma sansi verdi. Boylelikle insanlar, diger hayvanlara kiyasla pek cok hayati oneme sahip sistemleri henuz tam olarak gelismemisken erken dogar hale geldiler. Bir tay dogumdan kisa bir sure sonra yuruyebilir, bir yavru kediyi bir kac haftalikken annesi yemek arayisina cikarak onu yalniz birakabilir. Insanlarin bebekleriyse yillarca bakim, yardim, koruma ve egitim icin buyuklere muhtactir.

3. NEDEN SOSYALIZ?

Bir cocuk buyutmek, ailenin diger uyelerinden ve kommsulardan surekli yardim almayi gerektirir, bu yuzden bir insani buyutmek icin butun kabileye ihtiyac vardir. Evrim boylelikle, guclu sosyal baglar kurabilenleri desteklemistir. Buna ek olarak, insanlar az gelismis olarak dogduklarindan diger tum hayvanlardan daha cok egitilebilir ve daha cok sosyal iliski kurabilirler.

4. GIDEREK ACIMASIZLASAN INSAN

1 milyon yil once yasayan insanlar, buyuk beyinlerine ve sivri taslara ragmen avci hayvanlardan korkarak , nadiren buyuk hayvanlar avlayarak yasadilar ve hayatta kalmalari bitki toplayarak, bocek yiyerek, kucuk hayvanlari avlayarak ve daha guclu hayvanlarin biraktigi lesleri yiyerek mumkun olabildi.

Ancak 400 bin yil once cesitli insan turleri buyuk av hayvanlarini avlamaya basladi ve ancak yuz bin yil once Homo Sapiens’in ortaya cikisiyla, insan besin zincirinde yukari zipladi.

energy-pyramid

Bu zincirde, orta siralardan yukariya dogru atilan bu buyuk adimin cok onemli sonuclari oldu. Piramidin tepesindeki aslan ve kopekbaligi gibi diger hayvanlar, bu pozisyona kademeli olarak milyonlaarca yil icinde yukselmisti. Bu yavas gecis, ekosistemin cesitli denge ve kontrol mekanizmalari ureterek , aslanlarin ve kopekbaliklarinin ortalikta teror estirmelerini engelledi. Aslanlar daha olumcul oldukca ceylanlar da daha hizli kosmaya, sirtlanlar daha iyi is birligi yapmaya, gergedanlar daha saldirgin olmaya basladi. Buna karsin, insan tepeye o kadar hizli cikti ki, ekosistemin gerekli ayarlamayi yapacak vakti olamadi, ve buna ek olarak insanlar da bu degisime ayak uyduramadi.

Daha yakin zamana kadar savanadaki orta halli yaratiklar oldugumuz icin hala korku ve endiselerle doluyuz, ve bu da bizi fazlasiyla zalim ve tehlikeli kiliyor.

maxresdefault
Vietnam savasindan bir kare. Insanoglu ne zaman bu kadar zalim oldu?

5. ‘KURGU’ GUCU, HAYVANLAR ALEMINDE BIZE HAS

Bildigimiz kadariyla sadece Sapiens hic gormedigi, dokunmadigi ve koklamadigi varliklar hakkinda konusabiliyor. Kurgular hakkinda konusabilme becerisi, Sapiens dilinin en ozgun yanidir. Ote yandan kurgu, sadece birseyleri hayal edebilmemizi degil, bunlari kolektif olarak yapmamizi da sagladi. Ortak mitler yaratiyoruz ve bu mitler Sapiens’s buyuk gruplar halinde esnek bir isbirligi yapabilme becerisi veriyor.

Sosyolojik arastirmalar dedikodu sayesinde birarada durabilen ‘dogal’ bir grubun sinirinin 150 kisi oldugunu gostermistir. Grup bundan buyuk oldugunda cogu kisi digerlerini ne yakindan taniyabilir ne de etkili bir sekilde dedikodu yapabilir (Blog yazari notu: O yuzden benim Facebook’umda yer alan 1800 arkadasim ‘dogal’ bir grup olusturmuyor 🙂 )

6. YASASIN AVCI TOPLAYICI ZAMANLARIMIZ KAHROLSUN TARIMA GECIS

Yazar neredeyse tum kitap boyunca tarim donemine gecisin ne kadar talihsiz bir karar oldugunu, insanlara geri adim attirdigini kanitlamaya calisiyor.

Bizim beynimiz hala aslinda avci toplayici zamanlar gibi dusunuyor. mesela baska bir kitapta okumustum: Baktigimiz yerlerde hemen yuze benzer sekilller farketme (mesela ay uzerinde veya elektrik outletinde) avci zamanlarimizda calilar arasinda av yuzu aramamizdan, ya da kaplan vs den korunmak amaciyla surekli etrafta bir yuz arayisimizdan gelir. Yuksek ve tiz sesler neden bizi cok rahatsiz eder? Mesela itfaiye ve ambulans, tahtaya yazan tebesir ya da mikrofondan cikan tiz ses. Cunku bir teoriye gore bebek aglama sesi oldukca tiz ve beynimiz bir anda ‘bir seylerin tehlikede olmasi’ hissi yaratiyor, tipki aglayan bir bebekteki gibi. Bir de bugun ki karbonhidrat ve seker zaafimiz. Avci toplayicilar surekli hareket halinde olduklarindan fazlasiyla enerjiye ihtiyac duyarlardi ve ucsuz bucaksiz yaylalarda, ormanlarda yururken ne zaman bir besin bulacaklarini bilmeleri imkansizdi. O yuzden bir incir agacina rast gelirlerse, tum agactaki meyveleri yerlerdi. Beynimizin karbonhidrat ve seker yedikce iyi hissetmeye evrilmesi beynin vucudu gelecekte olasi acliga karsi kurtarma cabasindan baska bir sey degil. Amma velakin beynimiz biraz geride, avci toplayici saniyor hala bizi.

Bunun nedeni, turumuzun tarihin neredesyse tamami boyunca avci toplayici olmasi. Besin ihtiyacimizi sehirlerde yasayarak kazandigimiz son 200 yil, cogu sapiens’in ciftci olarak yasadigi ondan onceki 10 bin yil, atalarimizin avcilik ve toplayicilik yaparak gecirdigi on binlerce yilin yaninda goz acip kapama suresidir.

Bugunku pek cok sosyal ve psikolojik ozelligimizin bu tarim oncesi cok uzun donemde olustugu one surulmektedir. Su anda sahip oldugumuz ortam bize onceki nesillerin sahip oldugundan cok daha fazla fiziksel kaynak ve uzun omur saglarken, bir yandan da siklikla yabancilasmis, depresif ve baski altinda hissettirmektedir. Bunun icin evrim psikologlarinin tavsiyesi bizi sekillendiren  avci toplayici donemi anlamak.

Tas Devri aslinda Tahta Devri olarak adlandirilmalidir, cunku bu donemde avci toplayicilar tarafindan yapilan aletlerin cogu tahtadan yapilmistir.

Avci Toplayici…

Insanlarinin buyuk cogunlugu bir kac duzine ya da en fazla bir kac yuz bireyden olusan kamplarda yasarlardi ve aralarinda hic hayvan yoktu. Kopek haric. Insanoglu’nun avci toplayiciyken ilk evcillestirdigi hayvan kopekti. 15 bin yillik bag, insanlarla kopekler arasinda insanlarka diger hayvanlar arasindakinden cok daha derin bir yakinlik ve karsilikli anlasma yaratti.

dogs
By Ed Yong, The Atlantic, June 2, 2016

Avci toplayicilarda mahremiyet ve yalnizlik yoktu. Arada biraraya gelseler de zamanlarinin cogunu birbirlerinden ayri disarda avlanarak gecirdiler. Sosyopolitik ilskiler duzensizdi, yerlesik sehirler yoktu. Sapiens genis alanlara cok seyrek bir bicimde yayilmisti. Tarim devrimi’nden once tum gezegendeki Sapiens sayisi Istanbul nufusundan azdi.

Tarim Devri ve Sonrasi  Avci Toplayici doneme kiyasla neden kotu?

Birey olarak bakildiginda avci toplayicilar tarihteki en becerikli ve bilgili insanlardi. : O donemde hayatta kalabilmek herkesin muhtesem zihinsel becerilere sahip olmasini gerektirirdi. Tarim ve sanayi ortaya cikinca insanlar hayatta kalabilmek icin giderek diger insanlarin becerilerine daha fazla guvendiler ve ’embesiller icin yeni firsatlar’ ortaya cikti. Uretim bandinda calisan bir isci olarak, siradisi olmayan genlerinizle hayatta kalabilir ve bunlari bir sonraki nesile aktarabilirsiniz.

Lutfen su kisa filme bir bakin, geldigimiz noktayi guzel anlatiyor:

Fosillesmis iskeletlerden elde edilen bulgular gosteriyorki eski avci toplayicilar aclik ve yetersiz beslenme sikintilarini kendilerinden sonra gelen koylulerden daha az cektiler, ayrica genellikle daha saglikli ve daha uzun boylu olduklari goruluyor.

Avci toplayicilarinin basarisinin sirri yiyeceklerinin cesitli olmasiydi. Ciftcilerse genellikle sinirli ve dengesiz beslenirler. Ozellikle modern oncesi caglarda tarim nufusunun aldigi kalorinin onemli kismi tek bir urunden gekirdi (bugday, patates ve pirinc gibi) ve bunlar da insanlarin ihtiyaci olan vitamin mineral ve diger besleyici seyler acisindan zayiftir.

cav-1-500x234

Ayrica, tarim topluluklari kuraklik, yangin veya depremler, yillik pirinc veya patates hasadini yok ettiginde mahvolurlardi.

Tarim ve Sanayi toplumlarini etkileyen bulasici hastaliklarin cogu (tuberkuloz, cicek ve kizamik gibi) evcil hayvanlarda ortaya cikmis ve insanlara Tarim Devrimi’nden sonra bulasmistir. Avci toplayicilar ise dogayi kucuk gruplar halinde gezerdi ve bu durum salginlarin surmesine engel olurdu.

Cogu arastirmaci animist inanclarin eski avci toplayicilarda yaygin oldugu konusunda birlesir. Animizm (Latince ruh anlamina gelen ‘anima’ dan) temel olarak yerin, her hayvanin, her bitkinin ve her doga olayinin farkindaligi ve hisleri olduguna ve insanlarla dogrudan iletisim kurdugu fikrine dayanir. Insanlarla diger varliklar arasinda bir fark olmadigi gibi bir hiyerarsi de yoktu. insan disi varliklar sadece insanin ihtiyacini gidermek icin degillerdi. dunyayi istedikleri gibi yoneten sonsuz guc sahibi tanrilar da yoktu. Dunya insanlarin ya da baska bir yaratigin etrafinda donmuyordu.

Modern oncesi tarim toplumlari teistti. Teizm (Yunanca tanri anlaminda ‘theos’ tan) evrensel duzenin insanlar ve ruhani varlik olan tanrilar arasindaki hiyerarsik iliski uzerine kurulu olduguna inanir.

7. HOMOSAPIENS: EKOLOJIK SERI KATIL

Insanlarin Avustralya’ya ilk seyahati tarihteki en onemli olaylardan biridir ve en az Kolomb’un Amerika’ya seyahati veya Apollo 11’in Ay’a gidisi kadar onemlidir. Ilk avci toplayicinin Avustralya sahillerine ayak bastigi an, Homo Sapiens’in ilk kez belirli bir kara parcasinda besin zincirinn en ustune tirmandigi ve artik dunyanin en tehlikeli hayvanlarindan biri halie geldigi andir.

Bir kac bin yil icerisinde neredeyse tum dev turler yokoldu. 50 kilogramdam daha agir 24 Avustralya turunun 23’u bugun yok (Asagidaki resimlemeler Avustralya Muzesi’nden alintidir).

Afrika ve Asya’nin buyuk hayvanlari insanlardan kacmayi ogrenmisti. Bu yuzden buyuk avci Homo Sapiens bu kitalarda oraya ciktiginda bu hayvanlar insana benzer yaratiklardan uzak durmalari gerektiginin farkindaydi. Buna karsin, Avustralya devlerinin kacmayi ogrenecek zamanlari yoktu.

Homo Sapiens, Kuzey Amerika’yi ele gecirdigi ilk 2 bin yil icinde memeli cinslerinin 47’sinden 34’unu kaybetti. Guney Amerika’da 60’tan 50’sini. Kilic disli kediler 30 milyon yil boyunca yasadiktan sonra yokoldular, tipki dev tembel hayvanlar, asiri buyuk aslanlar, Amerika’nin yerli atlari, yerli develeri, dev kemirgenleri ve mamutlari gibi.

Ne kadar cok turu ortadan kaldirmis oldugumuzu bilseydik, hala hayatta kalanlari korumak icin daha istekli olurduk.

Avustralya da cok koala olmasinin sirri…

45 bin yil once Avustralya’da okaliptus bitkisi nadir bulunurdu. Fakat Homo Sapiens‘in gelisi, bu tur icin altin bir cag baslatti. Okaliptusler yangina cok dayanikli oldugundan (Kokleri oyle, aslinda okaliptus cok cabuk alev alir) , diger agaclar ve calilar yok olurken okaliptusler genis alanlara yayildi. Bitki ortusundeki bu degisim bitki yiyen hayvanlarda ve otcullari yiyen etcillerde degisiklige yol acti. Neredeyse sadece okaliptus yapragi yiyen koalalar yeni topraklara dogru keyifle yayildi.

8. TARIM DEVRIMI: TARIHIN EN BUYUK ALDATMACASI

Eger zihinlerimiz eski avci toplayici zihni diyorsak, mutfagimiz da eski ciftcilerin mutfagidir.

Peki tarim devrimleri Ortadogu, Cin ve Orta Amerika’da ortaya cikti da Avustralya, Alaska veya Guney Afrika’da ortaya cikmadi? Sorunun cevabi cok basit: cunku cogu hayvan ve bitki turu evcillestirilemez. Sapiens lezzetli mantarlari toplayip yunlu mamutlari avlayabilir ama bunlari evcillestirmek soz konusu bile degildir. Mantarlar evcillestirmek icin fazla guvenilmezdir, dev hayvanlar ise cok vahsi. Iste tarim devrimi de bu evcillestirilebilen hayvan ve bitki turlerinin yogun oldugu yerlerde ortaya cikti.

Tarim devrimi insanlarin daha da zekilestiginin bir kaniti degildir. Avci toplayici insan doganin sirlarini bilmenin yaninda, zamanlarinin buyuk bir bolumunu cesitli ve insani zihinsel olarak uyaran faaliyetlere geciriyorlardi.  Yani Tarim Devrimi insanligin elindeki toplam gida miktarini kesin olarak artirdi ancak daha iyi bir beslenme veya daha cok keyifli zaman yaratmadi. Daha ziyade nufus patlamasina yol acarak simarik seckinler yaratti: Ortalama ciftci ortalama avci toplayicidan daha fazla calisarak karsiliginda daha kotu besinlere sahip oldu.

Peki neden bu kadar zahmete katlandi insanoglu sirf bugday yetistirmek icin?

Bugday yetistirmek zor istir. Etrafindaki otlarin kayalarin temizlenmesi gerekir. Eski iskeletler incelendiginde tarima gecisin insanlara bel fitigi, eklemlerde kireclenme ve diger fitiklar olarak geri dondugu gorulmektedir.

Bu tarimsal islemler o kadar zaman almaktaydi ki insanlar bugday tarlalarinin yakininina kalici yerlesimler kurmak zorunda kaldilar. Biz bugdayi evcillestirmedik, Bugday bizi evcillestirdi.

Tahillara dayali bir beslenme bicimi mineral ve vitamin yonunden zayif, sindirimi zor ayrica dis ve disetlerine zararlidir.

Tahillara bagimlilik ekonomik guvensizlik de yaratti: Eger yagmurlar yetersiz kalir veya cekirge suruleri ve mantarlar bu bitkileri nasil eline gecireceklerini kesfederse, binlerce hatta milyonlarca koylu olebilirdi.

This slideshow requires JavaScript.

Bugday insanlardan gelen siddete karsi da guvence sunan bir sey degildi. Guclu bir dusman bir tarim koyunu tehdit ettiginde, geri cekilmek tarlalari, evleri ve gida depolarini birakip gitmek anlamina gelirdi. Cogu zaman, kacanlar aclikla savasirdi. Bu yuzden ciftciler olduklari yerde kalip gucleri yettigince savasmayi secerlerdi.

Peki neden butun bunlara ragmen bugday yetistirdik? Insanlara, birey olarak hic bir sey vermedi ama bir tur olarak Sapiens’e katki yapti. Bugday yetistirmek, insanlara toprak miktarina oranla cok daha fazla gida uretme sansi verdi bu da Sapiens’in katlanarak cogalmasini sagladi.

Hangi akli basinda birey, Homo Sapiens cinsinin sayisi artsin diye kendi standartlarini dusurur?

Daha cok bugday urettikce ve yerlesim arttikca, aileler daha cok cocuk yaptilar, bu artan bogazi doyurmak icin daha cok bugday ekip bicmek gerekti. cocuklari anne sutu yerine yulaf lapasiyla da besleyince cocuk olumleri artti. Her 3 cocuktan biri 20 yasini goremeden oluyordu. Ama nufus artisi hala olumlerden daha buyuktu. her nesil sorgulamadan bir onceki nesil ne yapiyorsa onu yapiyordu.

Kuraklik zamanlarina care olarak depolanan ekinler de guvenlik sorunu yaratmisti, hirsizlara karsi simdi de nobetci koymak zorundaydilar.

9. EVCILLESTIRME

Sanliurfa’nin Haliliye ilcesindeki arkeolojik alan, Gobeklitepe, Dunya icin cok buyuk bir oneme sahiptir. MO 10,000-12,000 li yillara ait bu kalintilar yer yuzunun en eski tapinagina isaret ediyor. Isin ilginc yani, Gobeklitepe’yi insa eden hala avci toplayiciydilar. Bu cok alisilmisin disindaydi cunku tapinak yapan toplumun yerlesik duzene coktan gecmis olmasi beklenir. Bir baska ilginc detaysa bugdayla ilgili: Genetikciler yillar boyunca evcillestirilmis bugdayin kokeninin aramaktaydi. yakin zamandaki kesifler en azindan evcillestirilmis bir turun (kucuk kizil bugday) Gobekli Tepe’ye 30 KM mesafedeki Karacadag tepelerinde ortaya ciktigini gosteriyor.

Bu asagidaki kisa 10 dakikalik belgesel Gobekli Tepe bu evcil budgayla ilgili. Dikkat: Adamin agir Iskocya Aksani ve ‘Gobekli Tepe’ telafuzu sizi gulumsetebilir 🙂

Hayvanlari da tipki bugdaya yaptiklari gibi evcillestirdiler: En agresif koclar, yani insan kontolune en cok direnc gosterenler ilk once kesilirdi; cok ince ve huysuz disiler de. Cobanlar genellikle suruden uzaklasan merakli koyunlari pek sevmezler. Her nesille birlikte koyunlar daha sisman, daha itaatkar ve daha az merakli hale geldiler.

Zalim Insanoglu – Vejeteryan mi olsak?

Hayvanlarin evcillestirilmesi yuz yillar gectikce giderek daha zalimce bir hale gelen bir dizi vahsi  uygulama sayesinde olmustur. Bakin:

  • Yabani tavuklarin ortalama yasam suresi 7-12 yil, ineginki ise 20-25 yildir.
    Evcil tavuklarin ve ineklerin cogunlugu, bir kac hafta ile bir kac ay arasinda bir surede kesilir – neden 3 ayda azami agirligina ulasan bir horozu 3 yil daha beslemek isteyesiniz?
  • Bogalari, atlari, esekleri ve develeri itaatkar kosum hayvanlarina cevirmek icin dogal icgudulerinin ve sosyal baglarinin yikilmasi, saldirganliklarinin ve cinselliklerinin kontrol edilmesi ve hareket serbestliklerinin kisitlanmasi gerekiyordu.
  • Evcillestirme sureci erkegin hadim edilmesini gerektirir. Bu hem agresifligi azaltir hem de uremeyi kontrol altina alir.
  • Kuzey yeni Gine’de domuzlarin kacmamalarini garanti altina almak icin burunlarindan buyukce bir parcayi keserler, oyleki koklamada aci ceksinler, yonlerini bulamasinlar, sahiplerine bagli hale gelsinler.
  • Baska bir Yeni Gine gelenegi de domuzlarin gozunu cikarmaktir, nereye gittiklerini goremesinler diye.
  • Hayvanlara istedigini yaptirmak icin sut endustrisinin de kendi yontemleri var. Inekler, keciler ve koyunlar ancak yavruladiktan sonra ve ancak bu yavrular emdigi surece sut uretirler. Hayvanin sut uretimini devam ettirmesi icin ciftcinin elinde bu yavrulardan bulunmasi fakat yavrular tam sutu tuketmeden ciftcinin bunu engellemesi gerekmektedir.: Yavrulari dogumdan kisa sure sonra kesmek, annenin tum sutunu sagmak ve sonra tekrar hamile birakmaktir.
  • Pek cok modern sut ciftliginde sut inekleri kesilmeden once yaklasik 5 yil yasar bu 5 yil boyunca inek neredeyse hep hamiledir ve dogum yaptiktan sonraki 60-120 gun boyunca azami sut uretimini saglamak icin ozel olarak beslenir.
  • Bir baska sut sagma teknigi, yavrunun sut emmeye baslamasina izin verip, sut gelir gelmez yavruyu cekmektir. Bu hem anneden hem de yavrudan tepki gorur.
  • Bazi coban kabileleri yavruyu oldurup etini yer, derisini de doldururdu. Ici doldurulmus yavru derisi anneye gosterilerek sut uretiminin artmasi saglanirdi. Sudan’daki bir kabile isi daha gercekci kilmak icin doldurulmus hayvana annenin idrarindan surerdi.
  • Bir Baska Nuer kabilesi teknigi de yavrunun agzinin kenarlarina boynuz takip, annenin canini yakmak ve emzirmeye itiraz etmesini saglamakti.
  • Sahra’da deve yetistiren Tuaregler de yavru develerin ust dudagini ve burnunun bir kismini kesip veya yaralayip sut emmeyi aci verici hale getirerek fazla sut tuketimlerini onleme yontemi gelistirmisti.

Factory Farming7303ef082b2821f2ca4015df5c37f7e8chicken123

10. TARIMA GECIS ‘BIZIM’ KULTURUMUZE BAKIS ACIMIZI DEGISTIRDI

  1. Esyaya onem verir olduk: Avci toplayicilar icin cesitli esyalar biriktirmek cok zordu.
  2. Gelecegi dusunup stres olduk: Tarim alanlari kuculmusken tarima harcanan zaman artmisti. Avci toplayicilar bir sonraki haftayi ve ayi pek dusunmezlerdi. Hasat donemi, mevsimsel ureti dongusu, gelecegi planlamayi gerektirdi.
  3. Hiyerarsik duzenin kolesi olduk: buyuk olcekli politik ve toplumsal sistemlerin kurulmasina yol acan ciftciligin yarattigi baskinin cok genis etkileri vardi. Azimli ve caliskan ciftciler, ne yazik ki, o gunki calismalarinin karsiligi olarak ulasmak istedikleri ekonomik guvenceye neredeyse hic bir zaman ulasamadilar. Her yerde ortaya cikan yoneticiler ve seckinler, koylulerin emegiyle urettigi fazla gidayla beslenip ciftcileri de zar zor hayatta kalabildikleri bir yasama mahkum ettiler.
  4. Savaslar: Tarihteki savaslarin ve devrimlerin cogu gida kitligindan kaynaklanmamistir. Mesela Fransiz Devrimi’nin onculeri ac cifciler degil, zengin avukatlatdi. Ya da Yugoslavya’nin 1991 deki kaynaklari tum ulkeye yeter de artardi bile ancak ulke bolundu ve kan govdeyi goturdu.

Bu tur belalarin kaynagi, insanlarin milyonlarca yil boyunca  bir kac duzine bireyden olusan kucuk gruplar halinde evrimlesmis olmasidir. Tarim Devrimi’ni izleyen ve sehirlerin, kralliklarin ve imparatorluklarin ortaya cikisina taniklik eden bir kac bin yillik sure, kitlsesel is birligini saglayan bir ic gudunun evrimlesmesi icin yeterli degildi.

11. PEKI IS BIRLIGINI NASIL SAGLADIK?

Mitlerle (Mit: kuşaktan kuşağa yayılan, toplumun düş gücü etkisiyle zamanla biçim değiştiren, tanrılar, tanrıçalar, evrenin doğuşu vb.yle ilgili, imgesel, alegorik bir anlatımı olan halk öyküsü-Wiki). Ta avci toplayici zamanlarimizdan beri yaptigimiz gibi, milyonlari mitlerle bagladik. Ne gibi mitler?: Para, Tanrilar, anavatanlar ve anonim ortakliklar hakkinda hikayeler icat ederek ihtiyac duyulan toplumsal baglari sagladilar.

Homo Sapiens’in dogal haklari aslinda yoktur. Tipki orumcekler, sirtlanlar ve sempanzelerin dogal haklari olmadigi gibi; ama bunu hizmetkarlarimiza soylememeliyiz, yoksa geceleyin bizi oldururler.

Askerler, gardiyanlar, yargiclar ve polisler neden inanmadiklari bir hayali duzeni korumak icin ugrassinlar?

12. HAYALI DUZEN ISTEKLERIMIZI NASIL SEKILLENDIRIYOR?

Insanlarin en kisisel istekleri sandiklari bile genelde hayali duzen tarafindan programlanmistir.

Romantiklik, bize kendi potansiyelimizi en ust seviyede gerceklestirebilmek icin olabildigince fazla deneyimimizin olmasini soyler (Yurt disina seyahat, desigik diller ya da danslar ogrenmek gibi)

Tuketicilik akimi da bize mutlu olmamiz icin mumkun oldugunca cok mal ve hizmet tuketmemiz gerektigini soyler (Yoga dersi, masaj, yeni kiyafetler vs.)

Su andaki romantik tuketiciligin ornegini soyle verelim:

happy-halloween-fb-1170x780
Romantik Tuketicilik. Resim: By Steve Israel Deichman, Kasim 21, 2016

Bir milyonerle karisi arasindaki iliski dikenli bir yola girdiginde, adam karisini pahali bir Paris tatiline goturur. Bu gezi, bagimsiz bir istegin degil, romantik tuketicilik akiminin mitlerine duyulan coskulu bir inancin yansimasidir aslinda. Eski Misir’da zengin bir adam, asla iliski problemini karisini babil’e goturerek cozmeyi dusunmezdi. bunun yerine karisina, hep istedigi sasaali bir mezar yaptirirdi.

Hayali Duzen Girdabi…

Insanustu bir cabayla kisisel isteklerimi hayali duzenin ellerinden kurtarsam bile, ben sadece bir kisiyim. Hayali duzeni degistirmek icin milyonlarca yabanciyi benimle is birligi yapmaya ikna etmem gerekir. Zira hayali duzen, kendi hayal gucumde yasattigim ozel bir duzen degil, insanlar arasinda yasayan, binlerce ya da milyonlarcasinin paylastigi hayal gucunde yasayan bir duzendir (Bknz: hukuk, para, tanrilar, milletler)

Peugeot’yu ortadan kaldirmak icin ondan daha guclu bir seyi, soz gelimi Fransiz hukuk sistemini hayal edebilmemiz gerekir. Fransiz hukuk sistemini ortadan kaldirabilmek icin ondan daha guclu bir seyi, mesela Fransiz devletini hayal edebilmemiz gerekir. Eger bunu da ortadan kaldirmak istersek bundan da guclu bir seyi hayal edebilmemiz gerekir.

Hayali duzen disinda bir yol mumkun degil. Etrafimizdaki hapishane duvarlarini yikip ozgurluge kostugumuzda aslinda daha buyuk bir hapishanenin genis bahcesine dogru kosuyoruz.

Evrimsel baskilar , avci toplayici olan insanin beynini cok ciddi miktarda botanik, zoolojik, topografik ve toplumsal bilgiyi depolayacak sekilde gelistirdi.

Tarim devrimi’nin hemen oncesinde cok karmasik toplumlar gelismeye basladiginda cok onemli ve yeni bir bilgi turu ortaya cikti: sayilar. Avci toplayicilarin agacta kac tane meyve oldugunu bilmesine gerek yoktu. Matematiksel veriyi saklama ihtiyaci duymamislardi.

maxresdefault (1)
Numbers in ancient Egypt

Zamanla tarima gecince, vergiler, borclar, urun hasat sayimi, saklanip islenmesi gereken milyonlarca ufak tefek veri ortaya cikardi. Insanoglu tum bunlari zihinde hesaplayacak ve zihinde tutacak kadar kapasiteli degildi. Bu nedenle bir kac bin yil sistem coktu. Insanlarin toplumsal aglari, gorece kucuk ve basit kalmaya devam etti.

MO 3000-3500 yillarinda Sumerler veri isleme sistemini buldu: Yazi. hatta ilk yazilan tablette ‘Bilmemne kisiden su kadar arpa alindi’ seklindeydi, romantik bir siir degildi yani 🙂

Yazarin en sevdigim paragrafi de su:

“Insan bilincinin hizmetcisi olarak dogan yazi, giderek insanin sahibi haline geldi. Bilgisayarlarimiz Homo Sapiens’in nasil konustugunu, hissettigini ve hayal kurdugunu anlayamadigindan, biz de bilgisayarlarin anlayabilmesi icin Homo Sapiens‘e sayilarin dilinden konusmayi, hayal kurmayi ve hissetmeyi ogretiyoruz.”

13. HAYALI HIYERARSILER

Tum toplumlar hayali hiyerarsiler uzerine kuruludur ama bu hiyerarsiler farklilik gosterir. Bu farklar nasil ortaya cikar? Neden geleneksel Hint toplumu insanlari kasta gore siralarken Osmanli toplumu dine, Amerikan toplumu ise irka gore siralamistir? Cogu durumda hiyerarsi, kazara biraraya gelen bir dizi tarihi durumun sonucu olarak ortaya cikmis ve durumdan avantaj saglayan gruplarin olusmasiyla da nesiller boyunca geliserek kalici hale gelmistir.

Kast sisteminin kokeni: Muhtemelen biyolojik hayatta kalma ic gudusuyle dogdu. Insanlarin olasi hastalik kaynaklarindan uzak durmasini saglayan bir mekanizmadir. Her hangi bir insan grubunu (kadinlar, yahudiler, cingeneler, escinseller, siyahiler) yalitilmis kilmanin en iyi yolu herkesi bu kisilerin bir ‘kirlilik’ kaynagi olduguna inandirmaktir.

Kadin-erkek hiyerarsisi yalani

Neyi Biyolojinin belirledigini, neyin insanlar tarafindan biyolojik mitler kullanilarak hakli cikarilmaya calisildigininasil bilebiliriz? Bunu anlamak icin onemli kurallardan biri: “Biyoloji izin verir, kultur engeller” kuralidir. Biyoloji, cok genis bir yelpazedeki olasiliklara hosgoruyle yaklasir. Insanlari bazi olasiliklari fark etmeye zorlayip digerlerini yasaklayan kulturdur. Biyoloji kadinlarin cocuk dogurmasini saglarken, bazi kulturlerse kadinlari bu olasiligi fark etmeye zorlarlar. Biyoloji insanlarin birbirleriyle cinsel iliskiye girmekten zevk almasini saglarken, bazi kulturlerse onlarin bu firsati farketmesini yasaklarlar.

Kultur genellikle sadece dogal olmayan seyleri yasakladigini one surer ama biyolojik bir perspektiften bakinca her sey dogaldir. Mumkun olan sey, tanim geregi dogaldir. Gercekte dogal olmayan ya da dogaya aykiri olan hic bir tavir zaten ayakta kalamaz, bu yuzden de yasaklanmasina gerek yoktur. Hicbir kultur insanlarin fotosentez yapmasini, kadinlarin isik hizindan daha hizli kosmasini veya negatif yuklu elektronlarin birbirine dogru cekilmesini yasaklamaya kalkmamistir.

Gercekte ‘dogal’ ve ‘dogal olmayan’ kavramlari, biyolojiden degil Hristiyan ilahiyatindan alinmadir. “Dogal”in ilahiyattaki anlami, ‘Dogayi yaratan Tanri’nin niyetiyle uyumlu’ dur.

Cinsiyet ve toplumsal cinsiyet ayrimi…

Biyolojik olarak insanlar erkekler ve disiler olarak ayrilmistir. Homo Sapiens’in bir X, bir de Y kromozomu olan erkek, iki X kromozomu olansa disidir. Ama ‘erkek’ ve ‘kadin’ biyolojik degil, toplumsal kategorilerdir.

Eski’nin krallari (bakiniz asagi da) bugunun ‘erkek’ (toplumsal kategori) tanimina uymuyor gibi gorunuyor, neden?

This slideshow requires JavaScript.

Cinsiyet-p1

Erkeklerin nesi bu kadar iyi?

En azindan Tarim Devrim’inden beri, cogu insan toplulugu erkeklere kadinlardan daha fazla deger veren ataerkiltoplumlardir. erkek olmak hep daha ayricalikli olmustur. Ama neden? Bir cok teori soz konusu ve hic biri inandirici degil:

  1. Kas Gucu:  “Erkekler kadinlardan daha gucludur’ onermesi sadece ortalama icin gecerlidir ve gucten ne anladiginiza baglidir. Kadinlar genellikle acliga, hastaliga ve yorgunluga erkeklerden daha dayaniklidir. Ayrica kadinlar tarih boyunca fiziksel guc gerektirmeyen (rahiplik, hukuk ve siyaset gibi) islerin tamamindan dislandiklari gibi, agir fiziksel guc gerektiren pek cok ise zorlanmislardir. Ikinci problemse: insanlarda fiziksel gucle sosyal guc arasinda dogrudan iliski yoktur. mesela genc insanlar fiziksel olarak daha guclu olsalar da, yaslilar genellikle genclerden daha ustun ve soz sahibidirler. Aslinda insanlik tarihi de fiziksel gucle sosyal guc arasindan genellikle ters yonlu bir ilski oldugunu gosterir. Cogu toplumda asagi siniflar agir isleri yapar.
  2. Toplumun Pislikleri: “Erkek egemenligi saldirganliklarindan gelir” teorisi. Yine de savasanlarin erkek olmasi, hem savasi yonetenlerin hem de tum getirilerinden faydalananlarin erkekler olmasi sonucunu mu dogurur? kadinlar genelde erkeklerden daha iyi yonlendirici olduklari gibi, sakinlestirme becerisi yuksek kisiler olarak gosterilirler, ayrica empatileri de daha yuksektir.
  3. Ataerkil genler: “Erkekler dogurgan kadinlari hamile birakabilmek icin birbirleriyle yaristiklarindan, ureme sansina sahip olabilmeleri her seyddeen once rakiplerini altedebilmelerine bagliydi.  Zaman gectikce gelecek nesillere en hirsli, saldirgan ve rekabetci erkeklerin genleri aktarilmis oldu. Kadinlarsa uysal bakici genler gelistirdi” teorisi. Bu tur bir dinamik aslinda anaerkil bir toplum dogurmalidir: kadinlarin bakima ihtiyac duymasinin kadinlari niye diger kadinlara degil de erkeklere muhtac ettigi, erkek rekabetciliginin erkegi toplumda nasil baskin hale getirdigi buyuk soru isaretidir. Nasil oluyor da tum basarisini isbirligine borclu olan bir turde daha az isbirligine yatkin olacagi varsayilan bireyler (erkekler) daha cok is birligi yapmaya musait oldugu varsayilan bireylere (kadinlar) ustunluk kurabiliyor?

domestic-violence-

En buyuk soru… biz bu hiyerarsilerle bu kadar ayrismisken nasil hala bi sekilde birarada durabildik?

Cevabi: Din, imparatorluklar ve para (Ayni tanriya inanmayan veya ayni krala itaat etmeyen insanlar seve seve ayni parayi kullaniyorlar?!).

Kulturel Farkliligin guzelligi: Dusuncelerimizdeki, fikirlerimizdeki ver degerlerimizdeki uyumsuzluklar bizi arastirmaya, elestirmeye, ve yeniden degerlendirmeye mecbur eder. Insanlar birbiriyle celisen degerler ve inanclara sahip olmasaydi muhtemelen herhangi bir insan kulturu olusturmak ve surdurmek mumkun  olmazdi.

14. PARA

Yazarin bu lafi cok guzel: “Para, su ana kadar yaratilmis en evrensel ve en etkili karsilikli guven sistemidir.”

Money 2

Para nasil basladi?

Avci toplayicilar kucuk kabileler olduklari icin paraya ya da takasa ihtiyaclari yoktu. Kimin hangi iste iyi oldugu belliydi ve lazim olan seyler paylasiliyordu. Ancak karmasik yerlesik tarim sistemine gecildiginde uzamanlasmalar, takasi gerektirdi: Uzmanlar (marangoz, ciftci, nalbur, vb) arasinda takas nasil gerceklestirilecekti?

Avci toplayici zamanindaki gibi iyilik ve zorunluluklara dayali bir ekonomi, cok sayida yabancinin is birligi yapmaya calistigi bir ortamda yuruyemez. Bir kardese ya da komsuya bedava yardim etmek ayri seydir, iyiliginizin karsiligini asla veremeyecek bir yabanciyla ilgilenmek ayri. Takas iyi bir yontemdir, ancak sadece sinirli sayida urun soz konusu oldugunda etkilidir ve karmasik bir ekonominin temelini olusturamaz.

Ticaretin mumkun olmasi icin iki tarafin da elinde digerinin istedigi urunden bulunmasi gerekir.

Para pek cok yerde ve farkli zamanlarda icat edildi. Paranin icadi teknolojik bir donm noktasi degil, zihinsel bir devrimdi. Bu devrim, sadece insanlarin ortak hayal gucunde yasayan yeni bir gercekligin yaratilmasinda gizliydi.

Madeni para basimi icat edilmeden cok onceleri de mevcut olan para, cesitli kulturlerde farkli esyalar kullanilarak gelisti: deniz kabugu, kakao cekirdegi, hayvan derisi, tuz, tohum, boncuk, kumas ve taahhutname gibi.

Ama neden madeni para kazandi?…

  • Cunku tasinabilir – tasimasi kolay.
  • Depolamasi kolay.
  • Cok yer kaplamaz.
  • Para ile her seyi her seyle degistirebilirsin: Ordudan atilmis bir asker universite ogrenim ucretini askerdeki birikimiyle karsilayinca, kas gucu, beyin gucune donusmus olur.

Para birikimleri kolay ve ucuz bicimde donusturebildigi, depolayabildigi ve tasiyabildigi icin dinamik piyasalarin ve karmasik ticari aglarin olusumuna hayati katki yapmistir.

Dine gecmeden once, onemli bir anektot da kitabin 199. sayfasindan ” Evrim diger sosyal memeliler gibi Homo Sapiens’i de yabanci dusmani (ksenofobik) yaratiklar haline getirmisti. Sapiens icgudusel olarak insanligi ‘biz’ ve ‘onlar’ olarak ikiye bolmustu.”

Kolonilesme ve bir halkin bir baska ulkeyi ele gecirmesi ile ilgili de fazla iyimser yazar Yuval. Diyor ki: “Eger zalim bir imparatorlugun mirasini onceki ‘otantik’ kulturleri yeniden kurmak ve korumak amaciyla reddetsek bile, muhtemelen savunacagimiz sey daha eski ve en az ayni derecede zalim baska bir imparatorlugun mirasi olurdu” (Mesela Ingiltere’nin Hindistana hakimiyeti gibi) (Vay beeee)

15. DIN

Din bugun cogunlukla ayrimcilik ve anlasmazlik kaynagi gibi gorulse de, para ve imparatorluklarla birlikte insanligi en iyi birlestiren 3. sey olarak sayilabilir. Tum toplumsal hiyerarsiler ve duzenler hayali oldugundan kirilgandir ve toplum buyudukce kirilganlik artar.  Dinler, yasalarimizin, insanlarin kaprisi degil, mutlak ve ustun bir otorite tarafindan buyurulmus emirler oldugunu soylerler. Bu da en azindan bazi temel yasalarin elestiriden muaf olmasini  saglayarak toplumsal istikrari saglar.

Animizm en basta bilinen din. Avci toplayicilar animistti: Amimizm tabiata ait olan her şeyde, şuurlu bir yaşayış bulunduğunu ileri süren doktrindir. mesela, ilkçağlarda yahudilerin gök gürültüsünü “yahova’nın sesi” olarak adlandırmaları, animist bir yaklaşımdır.

7917807_orig
Animist Resimleme

Sonra cok tanrili dinler ortaya cikti, en son da tek tanrili dinler.

Tarim devrimi, beraberinde dini devrimi de getirdi. Avci toplayicilar yabani bitkiler toplayip hayvanlari avliyorlardi ama bunlari Homo Sapiens’e esit goruyorlardi. Insanlarin koyun avlamasi koyunu insandan asagi yapmiyordu, tipki kaplanin insan avlamasinin insani daha asagi yapmadigi gibi.  Tarim Devrimi’nin ilk dini sonucu, bitkileri ve hayvanlari ruhani yuvarlak bir masanin esit uyelerinden birer metaya cevirmesidir.

Antik cag mitolojilerinin buyuk bir bolumu aslinda insanlarin bitkiler ve hayvanlar uzerinde hakimiyet kurabilme karsiliginda tanriya ebediyen sadakat sozu vermesidir. Tarim devriminden sonraki binlerce yil boyunca dini ayinler buyuk olcude, insanlarin ilahi guclere cesitli kurbanlar vermesi karsiliginda tanrilarin da insanlara bereketli hasatlar ve dogurgan suruler sozu bahsetmesi olarak ozetlenebilir.

Sayisiz Hristiyan, Musluman ve Yahudi, iyi Tanri’nin Seytan’la mucadelesinde bizim yardimimiza ihtiyac duydugunu dusunecek kadar ileri gittiler. Bu yaklasim diger baska seylerin yaninda Hacli seferlerinin ve cihatlarin da ilham kaynagiydi.

Animistler insanlarin dunyada yasayan pek cok yaratiktan biri oldugunu dusunurlerdi, coktanricilar ise giderek dunyayi insanlarla tanrilar arasindaki iliskilerin bir yansimasi olarak gormeye basladi.

Coktanriciligin tek tanriciliktan farkli olan ic gorusu dunyayi yoneten ustun gucun cikarlari ve on yargilari olmamasi, dolayisiyla da insanlarin dunyevi istekleri, kaygilari ve endiselerinden muaf olmasidir.

This slideshow requires JavaScript.

Katolikler ve protestanlar arasindaki fark

Katolikler ve Protestanlar arasindaki din savaslari Avrupa’yi ozellikle 16. ve 17. yuzyilda kasip kavurmustu. Bu savaslara katilanlarin hepsi Isa’nin ilahi ozelligini, sevgi ve sefkat hakikatini kabul ediyor ama bunlari yasama biciminde anlasamiyorlardi. Protestanlar, tanrinin oglunun insan bedeninde dunyaya geldigini, insanlik icin canini carmihta feda ettigini, boylece kurtulusun ve olumsuzlugun yolunu acarak kendisine inanan ve bu inanci yasayan herkese de cennetin kapilarini actigina inanirlar. Katolikler bu inanci yeterli bulmazlar, cennete girmek icin inananlarin kiliseye gitmeleri ve sevap islemeleri de gerektigini dusunurler. Protestanlar reddettikleri bu inancin Tanri’nin buyuklugunu ve sevgisini asagiladigini one surerler.

Budizm nedir?

Bu din daha cok ibadet edene odaklidir: Arzular aci cekmeye sebep olur. Aci cekmekten tamamen kurtulmanin tek yolu da arzu duymaktan tamamen kurtulmaktir. Bunu yapmanin tek yolu da gercekligi oldugu gibi yasamasi ici zihni egitmektir. Zihni ‘Su anda ne yasiyor olabilirdim?’ degil de “Su anda ne yasiyorum? ‘ a yoneltmektir.

Kitabin sonlarina dogru…

Kitabin sonlarina dogru modern Sapiens ten bahsediyor yazar. Sanayi devrimi’nden sonraki kapitalist ve tuketimci akimin ekonomiyi, hayvanlara hunharca davranma hakkini kendinde gormeyi,  insan iliskilerini nasil etkiledigini detaylica anlatiyor. Afrika’nin hunharca kapitalist sistem adi altinda Avrupa ulkeleri tarafindan somurulmesine yer vermis 327. sayfada.

Devletler ve piyasalar insanlara reddedemeyecekleri bir teklifle geldi: “Birey olun! Ailenizden izin almadan kiminle istiyorsaniz onunla evlenin. Buyuklerinize ragmen istediginiz isi yapin. Ailenizle yemek yiyemeyecek de olsaniz istediginiz yerde yasayin. Artik ailenize ve toplulugunuza bagimli degilsiniz. Biz devlet ve piyasa olarak size bakacagiz. Size gida, barinma, egitim, saglik, sosyal haklar ve is verecegiz. Issizlik maasi, sigorta ve koruma saglayacagiz.” Bugun, ebeveyn otoritesi buyuk gerileme yasiyor ve gencler anne babalarina gitgide daha az itaat ediyorlar. Ama hala cocuklarinin yasamlarindaki hemen her yanlistan sorumlu tutuluyorlar.

o-TEEN-FIGHTING-PARENTS-facebook

16. ASLINDA SAPIENS EN BARISCIL CAGINDA, UZULMEYIN

Yazar diyor ki gunumuzde cogu insan ne kadar bariscil bir cagda yasadigimizin farkinda degil. Hicbirimiz 1000 yil once hayatta degildik o yuzden de dunyanin eskiden ne kadar daha vahsi oldugunu tam da bilemiyoruz. Cok sayida insan bugun Irak’taki ve Afganistan’daki savaslara dikkat ederken, Hintlilerin veya Brezilyalilarin baris icinde yasadiklarini unutuyor.

Tarihi sureci makro duzeyde anlayabilmek icin bireysel hikayeler yerine buyuk resmi incelememiz gerekir. 2000’yilinda:

  • Savaslar 310,000,
  • Cinayetler 520,000

kisinin olumune sebep oldu. Her bir olum bir dunyanin yok olmasina, bir ailenin mahvolmasina sebep oldu,

Ama makro duzeyde 2000 yilinda:

  • Bu 830 (310+520)  bin kurban, dunyada o yil olen 56 milyon insanin sadece %1.5 ugunu olusturur.
  • Ayni yil 1,260,000 insan trafik kazalarinda
  • 815,000 kisi de inthihar ederek oldu.

Burda da goruluyorki gunumuzde tum terorizm ve savas tartismalarina ragmen, ortalama bir insanin kendini oldurme ihtimali bir terorist, asker veya uyusturucu saticisi tarafindan oldurulme ihtimali daha yuksek. 11 Eylul saldirilarinin oldugu yil intihar ederek olenlerin sayisi 873,000 (toplam olumlerin %1.53’u), teror ve savaslardan olenlerin sayisi (askerler dahil) 172,000 (toplam olumlerin %0.3’u)  – toplam olum sayisi 57,000,000. Ama o gun, teror insanlara unutulmayacak bir korku dalgasi yaydi bir kere. Kimse Inanilmaz yuksek oranda olan intiharlardan dolayi korkmuyor. Bence bu daha korkutucu.

Gordugunuz gibi rakamlar, halkin korkularini dogrular nitelikte degil.

17. MUTLU MU SAPIENS?

Ar-GI5oCIAEL2RE

Ayak izi ruzgarin olmadigi ayda bozulmamis halde duran  Neil Armstrong, 30 bin yil once Chauvet’ Magarasi’nin duvarina el izini birakan isimsiz avci toplayici’dan daha mutlu muydu? Eger daha mutlu degilse tarimi, sehirleri, yaziyi, parayi, imparatorluklari, bilimi ve sanayiyi gelistirmenin anlami neydi?

Arastirmacilar bu sorulari sormaya cekiniyor.

Aile ve toplulugun mutlulugumuz uzerinde para ve sagliktan daha fazla etkisi var gibi gorunuyor. Siki baglara sahip ve destekleyici ailelerle topluluklarda yasayan insanlar, problemli aileleri olan ve hic bir zaman ait olacaklari bir topluluk bulamamis (veya aramamis) insanlardan belirgin sekilde daha mutlular.

Olay su:

kendisini cok seven bir esi, yakin iliskilere sahip toplulugu ve ailesi olan culsuz bir engelli, eger fakirligi cok siddetli degil ve hastaligi kotulesmiyorsa veya cok acili degilse, yalniz ve her seye yabancilasmis bir milyarderden cok daha mutlu olabilir (Bknz. Anthony Bourdain veya Mehmet Piskin olayi)

Tum bu calismalarin en onemli bulgusuysa mutlulugun zenginlik, saglik hatta topluluk gibi olculebilir kosullara bagli olmadigidir. Mutluluk daha ziyade somut durumla soyut beklentiler arasindaki iliskiye baglidir.

Eger mutluluk  beklentiyle alakaliysa, toplumumuzun iki temel diregi- medya ve reklamcilik- farkinda olmadan da olsa, dunyanin mutluluk rezervlerini sonuna kadar tuketiyor demektir.

Bu yuzden de ucuncu dunya ulkelerinde memnuniyetsizlik sadece fakirlik, hastalik, yozlasma ve politik baskidan degil, surekli olarak Birinci Sunya standartlarina maruz kalmaktan da kaynaklaniyor olabilir.

Misirlilarin fiziksel kosullari hic simdiki kadar iyi olmamisti. Dolayisiyla bu insanlarin 2011’de sokaklarda dans ederek Allah’a sukredeceklerini dusunebilirdiniz, oysa onlar ayaklanarak Mubarek’i devirdiler. Sonucta, kendilerini firavunlarin yonetiminde yasayan atalariyla degil, Obama’nin Amerikasi’ndakilerle kiyasliyorlardi.

18. SON SOZ

Insan giderek kendini tanrisallastiriyor: Dogal secilimin yerine akilli tasarimin konmasi su 3 yoldan biriyle olabilir: biyoloji muhendisligi, siborg muhendisligi (organik ve organik olmayan parcalarin bir araya geldigi varliklar) ve inorganik yasamin yaratilmasi.

steven

Baskalarini icguduyle coktan otekilestirmis, kendini diger tum canli turlerine hukmediyor goren, kendi yarattigi hayali duzenler icinde yalan bir mutluluk yasayan, hirsli, olume meydan okuyan bir memeli Homo Sapiens. Tanri olmaya calisan bir hayvan.

Kanolardan uzay mekiklerine vardik ama kimse nereye gittigimizi bilmiyor. Kimseye hesap vermiyoruz, diger hayvanlari ve etrafimizdaki eko sistemi surekli mahvediyoruz  ve sadece kendi konfor ve eglencemizi dusunuyoruz, yine de tatmin olmuyoruz, yine de hala memnuniyetsiziz.

Ne istedigini bilmeyen, tatminsiz ve sorumsuz tanrilardan daha tehlikeli bir sey olabilir mi?

Posted in Must See Videos, Turkey

Lost in istanbul by Brianna

Ladies and Gentleman, meet the Romanian singer, Brianna, who is getting widely popular in Turkey.

Her last single back in March 2018 was ‘Lost in Istanbul’. It is a great video if you want to talk a short walk along Istanbul streets (Mostly in Istiklal street, Taksim, Karakoy and Besiktas). Her voice is also very very nice, I can see that this is going to be a real hit this summer in Turkey.

Enjoy!

Posted in Turkey

Stray Cats and Dogs of Istanbul

Any tourist that has been to Istanbul, Turkey will tell you the beautiful stray cats they saw. ‘Both the dogs and cats are so friendly and calm’ they would say.

While I was staying at an Airbnb in Cevahir, Istanbul last June, I had the chance of portraying some. These pictures are all from my camera. What is noteworthy is how healthy they look. I think Turkish people constantly feed and build shelters (see pics) for them. I know the dogs look drugged but actually they are not. They are just super lazy. They are everywhere: on streets, on motorbikes, at coffee shops, at restaurants. Here is a picture story of Istanbul’s street cats and dogs during one day.

IMG_1955IMG_1901IMG_1888IMG_1870IMG_1869IMG_1864IMG_1840IMG_1837IMG_1818IMG_1783IMG_1776IMG_1770IMG_1765IMG_1758IMG_1692IMG_1690IMG_1687IMG_1680IMG_1662IMG_1632IMG_1631IMG_1629IMG_1627IMG_1626IMG_1620IMG_1619IMG_1618IMG_1615IMG_1588IMG_1587IMG_1585IMG_1583IMG_1540

Posted in Uncategorized

Anneme Şiir…

Annedir o mis gibi kokan,
Bir haykırışınla yanına koşan,
Bu dünyadaki karanlıklardan,
Seni durmadan koruyan kollayan.

Hayat ona vurur, ama çocuğu için kalkar,
Yüzü hep güler, ama belki de içi kan ağlar,
Yorulmaz, tüm aileyi birbirine bağlar,
Kardeşler arası dengeyi o sağlar.

Mezun olduğunda, gözlerindeki o gurur,
Sana dünyaları veremediğinden mağrur,
İlk adımını attığında duyduğu heyecan,
Geçmez, sen olsan da koca bi adam.

Şu an annem hayatta olsa,
Sarılırdım ona hem de sıkıca,
Tıpkı uzun bi yolculuktan gelmiş gibi,
Bir daha da hiç gitmeyecekmiş gibi…

Özür dilerdim onu kırdığım anlar için,
Ve her neye darıldıysa için için.
Hadi yeniden başlayalım derdim, sil baştan,
Ne bağımlılıklar olsun, ne kavga, çekip gidelim buralardan.

Çocukları dersaneye gönder, derslere getir götür,
Oynarken düşüp parçalanan dizlerine hemen tentürdiyot sür,
Gönül yangınlarını şefkatli sözlerinle sen söndür,
Acaba nesi var diye düşün dur, çocuğun öksürüyor kaç gündür.

Maalesef seni yaşama döndüremem ki annecim…
Ama beni güzel yetiştirdiğin için sana teşekkürü bir borç bilirim.

En zor zamanımızda bile bir gün aç yatırmadın,
Sıkıntılı durumlardan güç ve zaferle çıkmamı sağladın,
“Aile herşeyden önce gelir,”
“Borç yiğidin kamçısıdır,”
“Dakik olmak önemli,”
Bunların hepsini sen bana aşıladın.

Yemek yapma yeteneğini,
Makyajsız evden çıkmama geleneğini,
Dağınıklığını, konuşkanlığını,
Lüle lüle düşen saçlarını,
Senden almışım canım annem.

Ela gözlerini gülerken, bana dokunan ellerini hep sıcakken hatırlamak istedim.
O yüzden seni son yolculuğundan önce görmeye gelemedim…
Dediler pişman olursun, git gör, vedalaş.
Hani derler ya cennette herkes en güzel halinde görünürmüş, işte o yaş.
Ben de seni 30 lu yaşların, kıvırcık saçların, gülen gözlerinle,                                          Altında kot pantolon, üzerinde vatkalı havalı bluzunla hatırlamayı seçtim.
Üzerinde yattığın mermer soğukluğunda, gözlerin kapalı gülümsemeyen bir sen değil annecim…
O sen değilsin çünkü.

Seni seviyorum annecim.
Sayende çok şey öğrendim…
Her şey çok daha güzel olabilirdi ama olsun,
Hayatta her şeyden bi ders öğreniyorsun,
Anneler günün kutlu olsun…

– Ece

 

 

Posted in the USA

Why do I LOVE Boston?

I have lived in three cities in the United States: Lawrence (Kansas), Chicago (Illinois) and Boston (Massachusetts) and although I had really good memories in each one of them, I ‘fell in love with’ only Boston.

Chicago is a great city with its infamously delicious food and fun jazz and blues bars. Lawrence is one of the best college towns to live in the US: Cheap, international, and very unKansasly liberal.

But Boston… With its historical composition, its college town feeling -despite the fact that the city is also a business center, its beaches and gardens among the brick houses (instead of high rises) and its young profile make Boston unique for me.

In this post, I will share my reasons with you and in the end you get to decide if I’m right or wrong. But before all that I want to remind you about Boston’s history, since it plays a critical role in the United States history.

The history of Boston plays a central role in American history. In 1630, Puritan colonists from England founded Boston and helped it become the way it is today. Boston quickly became the political, commercial, financial, religious and educational center of the New England region. The American Revolution erupted in Boston, as the British retaliated harshly for the Boston Tea Party and the patriots fought back. They besieged the British in the city, with a famous battle at Bunker Hill in Charlestown on June 17, 1775 (which was lost by the colonists, but inflicted great damage against the British) and won the Siege of Boston, forcing the British to evacuate the city on March 17, 1776. However, the combination of American and British blockades of the town and port during the conflict seriously damaged the economy, and the population fell by two thirds in the 1770s. The Irish Catholics, typified by the Kennedy Family, took political control of the city by 1900.

This is why you can still see a lot of Irish bars and Irish heritage all around Boston. Now that we know about the history, I can start writing about the greatness of this fabulous city!

#1. A Nature Loving City

In Boston, there are some tall buildings, some concrete going on, as in almost every big city. However, you can always escape to a green area to read your book, to breathe in the fresh air, or to have a quick run. Located in the heart of the city, Public Garden is beautiful all year around:

In Public Garden,you can take swan boat rides or you can do a picnic. There are always street musicians or performers to amuse you during the day. Street food (especially Arepas and pretzels) is something you will definitely come across.

The Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University is an arboretum located in the Jamaica Plain and Roslindale sections of Boston, Massachusetts and it is my second favorite natural place in Boston. You can see hundreds of different tree and bird species.

There is also Charles River Esplanade which is another place to escape the busy city life and enjoy the beautiful nature.

#2. Beautiful Architecture 

Boston is famous for its brick buildings and its city planning is breathtaking. Just walking around the buildings gives a weird sense of peacefulness to me. In Chicago, the architecture was great as well but I think it was making the gap between the rich and poor too obvious for me. However, in Boston, I can’t easily see that distinction by just looking at the architecture. It makes Boston look like a modest city.

539w

17772boston waterfrontBoston_backbay_brownstones_1

bostons-north-end-675479d9

Fairmont-Copley-Plaza-1-1
Copley Plaza

Winter season in Bostonharborside-grill-patio

old-state-house

#3 Lots of Things to Do in Boston

One of the best things about this city is that it is small enough to walk everywhere, but it is big enough that there is ALWAYS something to do. There are so many coffee shops (My favorites are Thinking cup and Cafe Nero). Also, they have the best homemade hot chocolate in the country! Indian, Italian, Greek, Chinese, Korean, Thai, Turkish and many more cuisines can be found at different restaurants everywhere. There are bowling alleys, improv shows, concerts, festivals, there is ‘The Boston Marathon’, there are canoe and boat rides on Charles River, there is the New England Aquarium that everybody should see. In summer, there are whale watching activities.  Boston Red Sox is one of the best baseball teams in the World. You can watch them at Fenway Park! Although it is usually too cold to swim, you can enjoy the sun at the beaches of Boston during summer.

2afdca65a25f95c4ee2a81e3f5623d66

131308472_17b1b2b95e_b-840x560

cafe-nero-washington-square-1
Cafe Nero at Brookline

CaffeNero_1380-639x427

crema-cafe__1232556577_0532
Cafe Crema
LA burdick
LA Burdick has the best hot chocolate!!
MI-CK478_BRANCH_P_20150706190344
Capital One Cafe (And a bank!?)

pavement-coffee-interior-boston

There are many good Irish Bars or other restaurant/bars in every corner. Especially in Downtown Crossing, Back Bay, South End and North End.

05-2-McGreevys-Irish-pub-Boston-second-room
McGreevys Irish Bar
2014_0314Wink-Nod-117_thumb.18873
Wink and Nod Bar and Grille
AJ4433.jpg
Faneuil Hall area is full of bars, restaurants and stores
back-bay-massachusetts-02
Boylston street is full of different kinds of restaurants and bars with outside seating
best-north-end-restaurants-guide-boston-mamma-maria
North End (AKA Italian Neighborhood) is famous for its Italian restaurants and bakeries.
Bistro-du-Midi-outdoor-dining-patio-deck-al-fresco
North End Fine Dining
boston__union_oyster_house__by_inbrainstorm
Union Oyster House is one of the famous Irish bars. You should try their Clam Chowder!
boston beer garden Luxury 55 best outdoor dining beer gardens images on Pinterest
A beer garden in Boston
coogans
Coogans is in downtown and it is famous for its cheap beer options.
el centro
El Centro Mexican restaurant
el centro2
El Centro Mexican restaurant
harborside-grill-patio
Hyatt Regency Boston harbor
Kinsale
Kinsale Irish Bar
North-End-Architecture-at-Corner-of-Salem-and-Prince-Streets-at-Night-January-2013-Photo-by-Matt-Conti
A North end Bakery
outdoor-dining-north-end-waterfront-dining-massachusetts-boston-eater-patios-lookout-rooftop-and-bar-best-outdoor-dining-boston
Atlantic Fish Co – Great Sea Food Restaurant at Copley
sonsie
Another good Italian restaurant
look out
Lookout Roof Top and Bar
aquarium
New England Aquarium, Boston

#4 Boston is a city of Knowledge and Art

As a person who LOVES reading books and who is always thirsty for knowledge, I feel so lucky to be in Boston. Being home to Ivy league universities such as Harvard, MIT, Northeastern and BU, Boston has a lot of students, which explains the high number  of museums and the bookstores in the city.

Boston Public library is open to everybody. You don’t have to go get a library card to study, but if you want to borrow books, of course you need one. The library has two sections: the historical one and the modern (Boston Library Central) part.

640px-Boston_Public_Library_Reading_Room
Boston Public Library
central
Boston Public Library Central
library_modern
Boston Public Library Central
library_modern2
Boston Public Library Central
library_modern3
Boston Public Library Central
public library central
Boston Public Library Central
public Library
Boston Public Library
public library2
Boston Public Library Backyard

There is a huge bookstore at Harvard square called ‘Harvard Book Store’ in which the atmosphere reminds me of Hogwarts in Harry Potter series for some reason. It has a large selection of books, besides a mini cafe inside. Additionally, there are many other bookstores in the city selling both brand new and used books. But my favorite one is the one near my work in Downtown Crossing: ‘Brattle Bookshop’.

bookstore
Harvard Book Store
boston-massachusetts-stati-uniti-harvard-university
Harvard University Campus id open to visitors all year around.
IMG_0561
Brattle Bookshop, where you can buy used books for as low as $3 or $5.

As I mentioned before, there are several good museums in Boston. The best thing is, most museums have free admissions after 5:00 PM! So after work or after school you can still enjoy a visit to a wonderful museum…For FREE!

ICA museum
Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston
isabella steward gardner museum
Isabella Steward Gardner Museum
isabella-stewart-gardner-museum-courtyard-980x735
Isabella Steward Gardner Museum
MFA
Museum of fine Arts, Boston
museum-of-fine-arts
Museum of fine Arts, Boston

#5 Boston Has a Young, Dynamic, Smart and Multicultural Profile

When I used to live in Chicago, one thing I realized was how segregated it felt. Downtown was mostly white collar white Americans, Southern Chicago and Uptown was black, Chinese lived in Chinatown, North had a Muslim neighborhood and around Kimball, there was the Hispanic neighborhood. Although there is a Chinatown here and Chelsea, in Boston is predominantly Hispanic, I can say that due to its college-town identity, it looks well-blended.

The other day I was walking down from Brookline to Allston. Brookline is mostly Jewish. I left the Greek Cafe ‘Athan’s Bakery’ (They had great desserts there). On the way, I over heard a Russian mom speaking on the phone and walking her baby, three Korean college students were walking pass by me. Later, I heard some English (not surprising, is it? :P) Then, this Turkish couple just walked into a nearby Starbucks. After that I stopped by at the Liquor store to get beer and paid to the Indian store owner. when I talk about being multicultural, do you see what I mean?

Because everybody is either a student, or a teacher, or admin, or businessman/businesswoman , you can feel the above average IQ in the air.

Of course while talking about good Boston people, I will include a picture of my colleagues. I think we fit the Boston profile well:)

boston peeps

Of course there are some things that I don’t like about Boston. Two things to be exact: The housing prices and the cold, long, snowy winters. The housing prices are outrageous. The rent for a studio apartment (NOT in downtown but 20-40 min train ride away) starts from $1400, one bedroom starts at $1700. If you want to live in downtown, it gets even more expensive. If you want to rent just a room it starts from $900 per room. These are ridiculous prices  because Boston is small and can accommodate only certain amount of people.

As far as the cold, long, snowy winter is concerned, after Chicago, I can’t complain 😀  I find Chicago winters even more brutal and I survived 3 of them. It is easier for me to handle Boston. But some people hate the weather and leave, I respect that.

Hope you enjoy this read and you find it helpful! Write a comment below if you have any questions or share it if you like it!

Cheers!

-Ece

Posted in Podcast

Kadına Şiddet

Kadına siddet konulu bu podcast, bir cok onemli konuya deginiyor. Cesitli Roportajlara da yer veren bu podcast de sunlari ogreneceksiniz:

  • Siddet yanlisi erkekler neden bunu yapiyor?
  • Duygusal siddet gordugunuzu nasil anlarsiniz?
  • Bu tur erkeklerin iyilesme ihtimali var midir?
  • Ne zaman ayrilmali?
  • Basiniza neler gelebilir?

8 Mart Dunya Kadinlar Gununuz kutlu olsun…

violence

 

Posted in books

‘The Naked Ape’ by Desmond Morris

“A Zoologist’s Study of the Human animal” This is how Morris describes the book.

Having been published in 1967, the book has some old feeling to it but it is a must read if you are interested in human origins or human behavior in general. So many things that we do today, in modern world, was coded in our brains thousands of years ago. By examining our ancestors, besides other animals, Morris had a very clear image of who we actually are: Naked Apes.

I would like to give some insight about the author first: Desmond John Morris (born 24 January 1928) is an English zoologist, ethologist and surrealist painter, as well as a popular author in human sociobiology. He is known for his 1967 book The Naked Ape, and for his television programs such as Zoo Time. He studied zoology at the University of Birmingham and he got his PhD degree in animal behavior, at the University of Oxford.

Morris makes my job way easier and divides his book into 8 major parts: Origins, Sex, Rearing, Exploration, Fighting, Feeding, Comfort, Animals. I intend to follow his path in this review. What is most striking about his style is that he can describe a process in a  very detailed way. He first starts the chapter with the observations he made on animals, after detailed descriptions, he explains how we see these traits in humans as well, then he makes his own comments on the subject. Some of them are well known facts but some of them are extremely surprising. Especially the ‘Fighting’ ‘Comfort’ and ‘Animals’ parts were interesting since I learned a lot of new things.

In this review you will find out:

  • Why are we naked in comparison to other primates?
  • Why do we hate snakes and spiders?
  • During a fight which one is an indicator of danger?: Your enemy’s face turning white or red?
  • Why do babies smile?
  • Why stares are intimidating?
  • Do we coded for monogamy or polygamy?
  • And more…

Enjoy.

ORIGINS

‘Naked Ape’ (aka Homo Sapiens) is an odd kind when compared with the other primate species, marked off by his nudity from all the thousands of hairy, shaggy or furry land-dwelling mammalian species.

It is the biological nature of the beast  that has molded the social structure of civilization, rather than the other way around. Only the names have been changed: for ‘hunting’ read ‘working’, for ‘hunting grounds’ read ‘place of business’, for ‘home base’ read ‘house’ for ‘pair bond’ read ‘marriage’, for ‘mate’ read ‘wife’ , and so on.

This chapter in the book starts with explaining how due to the climatic conditions apes were forced to become hunters rather than fruit pickers. The ancestral ground apes already had large and high quality brains. They had good eyes** and efficient grasping hands. They inevitably, as primates, had some degree of social organization. With strong pressure on them to increase their prey-killing skills vital changes began to take place. They became more upright-fast, better runners. Their hands became freed from locomotion duties – strong, efficient weapon holders. Their brains became more complex – brighter quicker decision makers.

apedog
This is what a dog-ape would have looked like. Not very charming.

It could be argued that evolution might have favored the development of a more typical cat- or dog- like killer, a kind of cat-ape or dog-ape, by the simple process of enlarging the teeth and nails into savage fang-like and claw-like weapons. But this would have put the ancestral ground ape into direct competition with the already highly specialized cat and dog killers. It would have meant competing with them on their own term, and the outcome would no doubt have been disastrous for the primates.

The forest ape that became a ground ape that became a hunting ape that became a territorial ape that became a cultural ape and we must call a temporary halt.

Vision

**The sensory equipment of the higher primates is much more dominated by the sense of vision than the sense of smell. In their tree-climbing world, seeing well is far more important than smelling well, and the snouts shrunk considerably giving the eyes a much better view. In searching for food, the colors of fruits are helpful clues, and unlike the carnivores, primates have evolved a good color vision.

Communication

Socially the hunting ape had to increase his urge to communicate and to co-operate with his fellows. Facial expressions and vocalizations had to become more complicated. With the new weapons to hand, he had to develop powerful signals that would inhibit attacks within the social group. On the other hand, with a fixed home base to defend, he had to develop stronger aggressive responses to the members of rival groups.

faces

faces2
Different gestures of Apes revealing their moods.

Father Role

A new development, for the general primate rule is that virtually all parental care comes from the mother (It is only a wise primate, like our hunting ape, that knows its own father).

Mother Role

Because of the extremely long period of dependency of the young and the heavy demands made by them, the females found themselves almost constantly confined to the home base. In this respect the hunting ape’s new way of life threw up a special problem, one that it did not share with the typical pure carnivores: the role of the sexes had to become more distinct. The hunting parties, unlike those of the ‘pure’ carnivores, had to become all male groups. If anything was going to go against the primate grain, it was this. For a vigorous primate male to go off on a feeding trip and leave his females unprotected from the advances of any other males that might happen to come by, was unheard of. This was something that demanded a major shift in the social behavior.

This slideshow requires JavaScript.

Male- Female Bond

Male and female hunting apes had to fall in love and remain faithful to one another. This is a common tendency in many other group of animals but it is rare among primates. This shift helped many things: Serious sexual rivalries between the males were reduced. This aided their developing cooperativeness. Also with the newly developed weapons, the hunting ape was under strong pressure to reduce any source of disharmony within the tribe. The last effect was on the little hunting apes. The heavy task of rearing and training the slowly developing young demanded a cohesive family unit. With the male-female bond (monogamous) this unity was formed.

This slideshow requires JavaScript.

Nudity

Why on earth should the haunting ape have become a naked ape? We can be fairly certain that it did not happen before our ancestors left their forest homes. It probably happened while they were on the open plains. There are several theories for our nakedness, let’s have a look at them briefly:

humanlike5
Infant chimpanzee with naked body with some hair on the top of his head. Are we a product of neoteny?
  1. Neoteny: To continue to possess some larval or immature characteristics in adulthood. If you examine an infant chimpanzee at birth (after exactly 8.5-9 months, like us) you will find that it has a good head of hair, but that its body is almost naked (see the picture above). If this condition was delayed into the animal’s adult life by neoteny, the adult chimpanzee’s hair condition would be very much like hours. BUT unless it had some special value to the new species, it would be quickly dealt with by natural selection. So why did it stay? Here are some other theories:
  2. What is the survival value of naked skin? When the hunting ape abandoned its nomadic past and settled down at fixed home bases, its dens became heavily infested with skin parasites. Also, such messy feeding habits that a furry coat would soon become clogged and messy would create a disease risk. There are hundreds of species who lost their hair during evolution due to this problem.
  3. Another theory is that development of fire led the loss of the hairy coat since hunting ape felt cold only at night and fire was handling the problem.
  4. This theory is very interesting: Before becoming a hunting ape, the original ground ape that had left the forests went through a long phase as an aquatic ape in search of food. Aquatic-Ape-TheoryClose examination reveals that on our backs the directions of our tiny remnant hairs differ strikingly  from those other apes. In us, they point diagonally  backwards and inwards towards the spine. This follows the direction of flow of the water passing over a swimming body. So the idea that we might have lost our body hair to reduce resistance when swimming. Also, we are unique among all the primates in being the only one to possess a thick layer of sub-cutaneous fat, a compulsory insulating device. Even sensitive nature of our hands support the aquatic theory: Because it takes a subtle sensitized hand to feel for food in the waterwaterape1waterape2waterape3waterape4waterape5waterape6
  5. Another argument that we lost hair because it was a social trend; it arose as a signal. Hunting ape wanted to look different to be easily identified.
  6. Another suggestion is that the loss of hair is an extension of sexual signalling. Sensitivity to touch was sexually important and by exposing their naked skins to one another during sexual encounters, both male and female would become more highly sensitized to erotic stimuli.
  7. The last suggestion, if you ask me, was the weakest one that was argued. Hunting ape lost hair to prevent himself from being over-heated. Exposure of the naked skin to the air certainly increases the chances of the heat loss, but it also increases heat gain at the same time and risks damage from the sun’s rays.

SEX

It is a confusing situation for today’s naked ape: As primates they are pulled one way, as carnivores by adoption they are pulled another, and as members of an elaborate civilized community, they are pulled yet another.

The female of our species has to reach the age of twenty nine before she can match the orgasm rate of the fifteen-year old male.

Why do we want to build our own family?

During the long, growing years, the young hunting ape will have had the chance to develop a deep personal relationship with his parents, a relationship much more powerful and lasting than anything a young monkey could experience. The loss of this parental bond with maturation and independence would create a ‘relationship void’  – a gap that had to be filled. He would therefore already be primed for the development of a new equally powerful bond to replace it.

Other primate females do not pair with their male partners during their pregnancy but the naked ape does: because with one male- one female  system, it would be dangerous to frustrate the male for too long a period. It might endanger the pair bond.

Why our lips are inside-out?

All primates have lips but not turned inside-out like ours. Giving a kiss on the lips is a greeting signal for the chimpanzee.

A male and a female chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) looking deeply in each others eyes

Kiss is both greeting and a sexual one for the naked ape. Why?: Sexual arousal produces some physical changes in the body; a swelling and reddening of the lips, and the clear demarcation of this area (the line between your lower lip and upper lip and the line around your lips) are shaped in a  way that they become more recognizable. Even in their un-aroused condition, they are redder than the rest of the face skin simply by their very existence, they will act as advertising signals drawing attention to the presence of a tactile sexual structure.

Another supporting fact to this is that if climatic conditions demand a darker skin, then this will work agains the visual signalling capacity of the lips by reducing their color contrast. If they really are important as visual signals, what they have lost in color contrast, they have made up for in size and shape by becoming larger and more protuberant.

Monogamy or polygamy?

If the violent hunting life results in adult males becoming scarcer than females, there will be a tendency for some of the surviving males to form pair bonds with more than one female. However, this will bring home the problem since the female won’t want to share him with somebody else. To have a peaceful relationship with his hunting mates, a peaceful family life at the home base, to keep the peace in the group, naked apes evolved to be monogamous.

We can sum up by saying that, whatever obscure backward tribal units are doing today, the mainstream of our species express its pair-bonding character in its most extreme form, namely long-term monogamous mating.

Our Smell Preferences

Before puberty, there are strong preferences for sweet and fruity odors, but with the arrival of sexual maturity this response falls off  and there is a dramatic shift in favor of flowery, oily and musky odors. This applies to both sexes, but the increase in musk responsiveness is stronger in males than females.

Incest

If the old primate patterns are left unmodified, the adult male will soon drive out the young males (his sons) and mate with the young females . These will then become part of the family unit as additional breeding females along with their mother, and we shall be right back where we started. But this wouldn’t work anymore for the new cooperative hunting ape. Because of its home-base needs and female-male bond that already improved, as the children reach puberty, they set off to establish a new breeding base and find their mate themselves.

Where did the urge for covering our genitals come from?

figleafIf sexuality had to be heightened to keep the pair together, then steps must have been taken to damp it down when the pair were apart, to avoid the over-stimulation of third parties. Because of their vertical posture it is impossible for a naked ape to approach another member of his species without performing a genital display. The covering of the genital region with some simple kind of garment must have been an early cultural development.

ABNORMAL or NORMAL sexual behavior?

If outside matings conflict too strongly with the pair bond, then some less harmful substitute for them has to be found. The solution has been ‘voyeurism’ meaning obtaining sexual excitement from watching other individuals copulating.

There is nothing biologically unusual about a homosexual act of pseudo-copulation. But the formation of a homosexual pair bond is re-productively unsound, since it cannot lead to the production of offspring and wastes potential breeding adults. One theory is that under serious over-crowding with no signs of any easing up in the immediate future, anti-reproductive sexual patterns must obviously be considered in a new light.

If either males or females cannot for some reason obtain sexual access to their opposite numbers, they will find sexual outlets in other ways. They may use other members of their own sex. or they may even use members of other species, or they may masturbate.

REARING

If the naked ape is trying to breast feed her baby and the baby doesn’t want it, there are two possible reasons:

  1. Nipple is not protruding far enough into the baby’s mouth.
  2. It is failing because it is being suffocated.

This is caused by the anatomy of the human female breast. Other female primates has much longer shape and does not swell out into the great rounded hemisphere that causes so much difficulty for the baby. This is because for our species, breast design is primarily sexual rather than maternal in function.

breastfeeding
All the primates but the Naked Ape have a shape of breast that is best for breastfeeding. With this shape, the baby doesn’t suffocate or doesn’t have any trouble reaching the nipple.

Why we breast feed on the left side?

The mother, either instinctively or by an unconscious series of trials and errors, would soon arrive at the discovery that her baby is more at peace if held on the left, against her heart, than on the right.

This is why babies sleep better with a ticking metronome with a heart beat speed . This also may explain why we insist on locating feelings of love in the heart rather than the head. Also, we rock back and forth on our feet when we are in a state of conflict. rocking like a heart beat calms us down.

breast

Voice and Crying

The astonishing fast rate of learning in the field of vocal imitation is unique to our species and must be considered as one of our greatest achievements. Chimpanzees are like us, brilliant at rapid manipulative imitation, but they cannot manage vocal imitations. This difference is a question of brain, not voice. The chimpanzee has a vocal apparatus that is structurally perfectly capable of making a wide variety of sounds. So do birds. But they are too bird-brained to make a good use of this ability.

By crying, the baby alerts its parents, the adult alerts the other members of its social group. There are two important factors to baby’s crying: physical pain (including hunger) and insecurity.

Laugh

Laugh has evolved from crying: the crying infant has become segmented, chopped up into small pieces and at the same time has grown smoother an slower.

Laughing does not appear until the third or fourth month. Its arrival coincides with the development of the parental recognition. Smiling is a secondary form of laughing. It has become specialized as a species greeting signal. Any social contact is at best mildly fear-provoking. Both smile and the laugh indicate the existence of this fear and its combination with feelings of attraction and acceptance (Blogger’s note: Maybe this explains the nervous laugh and nervous smile! I have a strange story actually, when I heard that my grandfather died in a tragic traffic accident, I was devastated. I was the one who broke down the news to my mom, but while I was telling her the terrible news, I found myself smiling! I was thinking to myself: What the heck? Stop smiling! But it was uncontrollable, I couldn’t control it. Maybe it was my fear that smiling!).

Also the evolution of smile is the clinging that apes do but we can’t since we do not have any fur on our mother to cling to. A young chimpanzee screams its head off when it needs attention, like we do. Once his mother comes he clings to her showing that he wants his mother to stay. We do the same by smiling. We signal to our mother that we want her and her attention to stay by smiling.

EXPLORATION

We never stopped investigating: this is the greatest survival trick of our species. Experiments with monkeys have revealed that not only does isolation in infancy produce a socially withdrawn adult, but it also creates an anti-sexual and anti-parental individual.

FIGHTING

Animals fight among themselves either to establish their dominance in a social hierarchy, or to establish their territorial rights over a particular piece of ground.

There is a rigidly established social hierarchy in most species of monkeys and apes, with a dominant male in charge of the group. When he becomes too old or weak to maintain his domination, he is overthrown by a younger, sturdier male, who then assumes the mantle of the colony boss.

The book explains the physical changes in our body during the preparation of a fight, which I’m not going to write here. Rather, I will share some interesting information.

When a mammal becomes aggressively aroused to fight a number of basic physiological changes occur within its body. The whole machine has to gear itself up for action by means of the autonomic nervous system. This system consists of two opposing and counterbalancing sub systems:

  1. The sympathetic system: the one that is concerned with preparing the body for violent activity. It says “You are stripped for action, get moving!”
  2. The parasympathetic system: the one that has the task of preserving and restoring bodily reserves. It says “Take it easy, relax and conserve your strength”

The enemy provokes fear as well as aggression. The aggression drives the animal on, the fear holds it back. The intense state of inner conflict arises. Typically, the animal that is aroused to fight doesn’t go straight into all-out attack. It begins by threatening to attack. If the enemy gets scared and leaves, then you win without shedding any blood. This is preferable.

In the tense state of conflict between aggression and fear, everything is suspended. The result is that parasympathetic system fights back wildly and the autonomic pendulum swings frantically back and forth. As the tense moments of threat and counter threat tick by, we see flashes of parasympathetic activity intermitted with the sympathetic symptoms. Dryness in the mouth may give way to excessive salivation. Tightening of the bowels may collapse and sudden defecation occurs. The urine, held back so strongly in the bladder, maybe released in a flood. The removal of the blood from the skin maybe massively reversed: extreme paleness being replaced by intense flushing and reddening. The deep and rapid respiration may be dramatically interrupted, leading to gasps and sighs. These are desperate attempts on the part of the parasympathetic system to counteract the apparent actions of sympathetic. This explains why in extreme cases of shock, fainting or swooning can be observed. In such instances blood that has been rushed to the brain is withdrawn again so violently that it leads to a sudden unconsciousness.

One of the side affects of an intense inner conflict is that animal sometimes exhibits strange and seemingly irrelevant behavior to show its fear + anger. There are so many variations to this in animal world. One of them that is similar to us is to indulge in ‘instant sleep’ momentarily tucking their heads into a snoozing position, yawning and stretching. The other one is scratching even though nothing is itching. Modern humans do this by rearranging ornaments (see below, 45. President of the USA’s behavior), lighting a cigarette, cleaning our glasses, looking at our watch, pouring a drink, etc. (Bloggers note: Also have you ever thought why we feel so sleepy while studying for our finals? That is our ‘instant sleep’ reaction to our fear.)

So what do animals do to show their enemy that they don’t want to fight anymore?

They either switch off the signals that have been arousing the aggression, or they switch on other, positively non aggressive signals. Because aggression involves violent movement, a static pose automatically signals non-aggression. Usually this is accompanied by crouching or cowering. Aggression involves expanding the body to its maximum size (look how the both men are opening their arms while threatening each other in the above video) and crouching reverses this . Facing away from the animal also helps.

In certain rare cases a loser will admit defeat by offering a vulnerable area to attacker. A chimpanzee for example, will hold out its hand as a gesture of submission. Modern human does this by a hand shake or raising our hands.

Sometimes they adopt juvenile begging postures which will talk to the enemy’s parental instincts. Modern human does this by adopting a ‘baby-talk’ that we see among couples.

The last thing the animal tries is grooming. A great deal of social or mutual grooming goes on in animal world and it is strongly associated with the calmer, ore peaceful moments of community life.

Human animal in Fight

We cannot intimidate our opponents, for example, by erecting our body hair. But we can go ‘white with rage’, ‘red with anger’, or ‘pale with fear’. It is the white color we have to watch for here: this means activity.If it is combined with other actions that signal attack, then it is a vital danger signal. If it is combined with other actions that signal fear, then it is a panic signal. The angry, red-faced opponent who faces you is far less likely to attack than the white-faced, tight lipped one. Red-face’s conflicts such that he is all bottled up and inhibited, but white face is still ready for action. White face is much more likely to spring in to the attack unless he is immediately appeased or counter-threatened even more strongly.

As naked apes, because our urge to attack and escape are both strongly activated simultaneously, we exhibit some characteristics movements. For example: raising of clenched fist or raising a hand, back and forth striking movements of the forearm. We blow our fist but at a safe distance form the opponent.

Naked ape make short approach-intention movements but repeatedly check themselves from going too far. maybe the stamped their feet or bring down their fists in any near-by object. This redirection activity happens a lot in animal world. Because the opponent is too frightening to be directly assaulted, the aggressive movements are redirected towards some other less intimidating object dor example a harmless bystander . Gorillas, chimpanzees frequently perform similar display, tearing up, smashing and throwing around branches and vegetation.

Watch the two men’s fight. It takes them about a minute to threaten each other (repeatedly check themselves from going too far). Their body move back and forth, they raise their hands up. You can easily see the guy with the green shirt’s face is turning red as the argument heats up. Also at the minute 0:30 by shooting the ball, actually he is redirecting his anger.

Our aggressive faces are the same with other primates, the more the urge to attack dominates the urge to flee, the more the face pulls itself forwards. If you are exposing your teeth, your forehead is wrinkling and eyebrows are raised, the fear is taking over.

The crouching of animals as a sign of defeat turns into groveling and prostrating in humans. The key signal here is the lowering of the body in relation to the dominant individual. When threatening, we puff ourselves up to our greatest height, making our bodies as tall and as large as possible. So submissive behavior must be the opposite. Like military salute; removing the hat actually a procedure of lowering the height of the body. Also the key feature here is the lowering of eyes. A direct stare is typical of the most out-and-out aggression.

Chimpanzees appease by holding out a limp hand towards the dominant individual, to show submission. We do the same gesture. It is our greeting gesture in the shape of a friendly hand shake. Friendly gestures often grow out of submissive ones.

The Power of Stare

During ordinary face-to-face conversations we typically look away from our companions when we are talking, then glance back at them at the end of each sentence, or ‘paragraph’, to check their response to what we have said. Even though a professor with much experience is in such a dominant position, there are so many students in the auditorium, all staring at him, that he experiences a basic and initially uncontrollable fear of them. Only after a great deal of practice can he overcome this. The simple, aggressive, physical act of being stared at by a large group of people is also causing the butterflies in his stomach. He has all his intellectual worries about the qualities of his performance and its reception, of course, but the mass threat-stare is an additional and more fundamental hazard for him. This is again a case of the curiosity stare being confused at an unconscious level with the threat-stare. The wearing of glasses and sunglasses makes the face appear more aggressive because it artificially and accidentally enlarges the pattern of the stare. Mild mannered individuals tend to select thin-rimmed or rimless glasses (without realizing why they do so) because this enables them to see better with the minimum stare exaggeration, arousing counter aggression.

staresmith
Do these stares with shades make you feel threatened? There is a reason for that.

Moths have a pair of startling eye-markings on their wings. These lie concealed until the creatures are attacked by predators.

moth
Moth with eye-markings on its wings.

On a smaller scale certain products have been given threat-face brand names such as OXO, OMO, OZO or OVO. The attention has already been drawn.

In animal world, during the fight, destruction of life is avoided because the enemy either flees or submits. In either case, the dispute is settled. But the moment that attacking is done from such a distance that the submission signals of the losers cannot be read by the winners, then violent aggression is going to go raging on. In modern aggression,  the result is wholesale slaughter on a scale unheard of in any other species.

There are 5 solutions proposed by the author to end the massacre:

  1. massive mutual disarmamaent
  2. de-patriotize the members of the different social groups.
  3. provide and promote harmless, symbolic substitutes for war
  4. improvement of intellectual control over aggression.

According to the author none of these are really possible for the near future. So he proposes this as the only sound biological solution to this dilemma: 5. Massive depopulation or a rapid spread of the species on to other planets, combined if possible with assistance from all four of the courses of action already mentioned. To sum up then, the best solution for ensuring world peace is the widespread promotion of contraception or abortion.

RELIGION

From out ancient background there remained a need for all-powerful figure who could keep the group under control, and the vacancy was filled by the invention of a god. At first sight it is surprising that religion has been so successful, but its extreme potency is simply a measure of the strength of our fundamental biological tendency. Because if this, religion has proved immensely valuable as a device for aiding social cohesion, and it is doubtful whether our species could have progressed far without it. We all simply have to believe in something.

EATING

Why do we like to eat our food hit?

Alternative explanations:

  1. it helps to simulate ‘prey temparature’ :Although we no longer consume freshly killed meat we nevertheless devour it at much the same temperature as other carnivor species.
  2. We have such weak teeth that we are forced to ‘tenderize’ the meat by cooking it. But it doesn’t explain why want to eat it hot.
  3. byincreasing the temperature of the food we improve its flavor.

Like other primates we find it hard to resist sweets.

The urge to eat meat appears to have become too deep -seated.

COMFORT

The place where the environment comes into direct contact with an animal, its body surface, receives a great deal of rough treatment during  the course of its life. Animals have evolved a veriety of special comfort movements that help to keep it clean.

Social grooming,  (animals picking food from each other’s fur) the development of a friendly mutual aid system. This can be seen in a wide range of both bird and mammal species, but it reaches a peak of expression among the higher primates. When they groom each other, they do lip-smacking to communicate. Look at this video:

We no longer have a luxuriant coat of fur to clean. Smiling has replaced lip smacking and vocalization replaced grooming. The behavior pattern of talking:

  1. Information talking: Talking with verbs about everything
  2. Mood talking: nonverbal mood signals
  3. Exploratory talking: Talking for talking’s sake
  4. Grooming talking; Meaningless polite chatter during gatherings

Fluffy or furry clothing, rugs, or furniture often release a strong grooming response. Pet animals are even more inviting, and few naked apes can resist the temptation to stroke a cat’s fur or scratch a dog behind the ear.

So, why the grooming adoption of humans did not involved our hair? The explanation appears to lie in the sexual significance of the hair. Its sexual associations have led to its involvement in sexual behavior patterns, so that stroking or manipulating the hair is now an action too heavily loaded with erotic significance to be used as a simple social friendship gesture.

In today’s world we have some psychological disorders and they are coming from the grooming need of our ancestors. Medical care is one of the grooming actions among apes. Minor infection and sicknesses are usually treated rationally, as if they are simply mild versions of serious illnesses, but there is strong evidence to suggest that they are in reality much more related to primitive ‘grooming demands’. The medical symptoms reflect a behavioral problem that has taken a physical form, rather than a true physical problem. This is happening because by examining, writing a prescription, taking care of the patient, the doctor is doing grooming. If psychological the person needs constant grooming, this is a disorder. In modern world we call it: Münchausen’s Syndrome. Those members of a community who are either very successful or socially well adjusted rarely suffer from this. Those that have temporary or long-standing social problems are, by contrast, highly susceptible.

Also, another disorder is hidden here: Some individuals have such a great need to care for others that they may actively promote and prolong sickness in a companion in order to be able to express their grooming urges more fully. This way a vicious cycle of a chronic invalid demanding and constant attention is created.  This is called: Münchausen by Proxy syndrome.

OUR OTHER SIMILARITIES

Like other primates we still scratch ourselves, rub our eyes, pick our sores,. and lick our wounds. We also share with them a strong tendency to sun bathe. In addition we have added a number of specialized cultural patterns, the most common and widespread of which is washing with water. This is rare in other primates, although certain species bathe occasionally.

We also sweat like primates. There is a further distinction in the ares of emotional sweating, the palms and the soles differing from the armpits and the forehead. The first regions respond well only to emotional situations, whereas the last two react to both emotional and to temperature stimuli.

ANIMALS

The last part of the book is about how naked ape sees other animals. There is some interesting information here. Higher forms of animal life regard other animals in 5 ways: as prey, symbionts, competitors, parasites and predators.

DomesticationOfDogs

The most ancient symbiont in our history is undoubtedly the dog. We cannot be sure exactly when our ancestors first began to domesticate this valuable animal, but it appears to be at least ten thousand years ago. The wild, wolf-like ancestors of the domestic dog must have been serious competitors with our hunting ancestors. In time – we do not exactly know how- they made a deal in each hunt to share the kill. In time, possibly young puppies were brought in to the tribal home base to be fattened so that they could eat them later. However, their value as watch dogs were discovered. Then, these that were allowed to live in a now tamed condition and permitted to accompany the males on their hunting trip show immediately their talent of track down the prey.

Having been fed and raised, the dogs would consider themselves to be members of the naked-ape pack and would cooperate instinctively with their adopted leaders. Selective breeding over a number of generations would soon get rid of the trouble makers and a new, improved stock of increasingly restrained and controllable domestic hunting dogs would arise.

Individual dogs with unusually well developed abilities in a particular direction were inbred to intensify their special advantages.

Cats

With the development of large-scale grain storage, rodents became a serious problem and rodent-killers were encouraged The cat the ferret and the mongoose were the species that came to our aid and in the first two cases full dommestication with selective breeding followed.

Animals We Like and We Don’t Like

They asked 80,000 British children aging between 4 to 14 what their favorite animal is in the zoo. The figures are as follows: 97.15% of all the children quoted a mammal of some kind as their top favorite Birds accounted for 1.6%, reptiles 1%, amphibians 0.055. If we narrow it to top ten animals:

  1. Chimpanzee (13.5%)
  2. Monkey (13%)
  3. Horse (9%)
  4. Bushbaby (A nocturnal ape) (8%)
  5. Panda (7.5%)
  6. Bear (7%)
  7. Elephant (6%)
  8. Lion (5%)
  9. Dog (4%)
  10. Giraffe (2.5%)

It is immediately clear that these preferences do not reflect aesthetic influences. The top ten are not the most elegant or brightly colored of species. They include instead a high proportion of rather clumsy, heavy-set and dully colored forms. But they look like ‘us’ or they act like ‘us’ somehow. Look at these facts:

  1. They all have hair, rather than feathers or scales
  2. They have rounded outlines (chimpanzee, monlkey, bushbaby, panda, bear,e lephant)
  3. They have flat faces (chimpanzee, monkey, bush baby, bear, panda, lion)
  4. They have facial expressions (chimpanzee, monkey, horse, lion, dog)
  5. They can ‘manipulate’ small objects (chimpanzee,. monkey, busbaby, panda,elephant)
  6. Their postures are in some ways, or at some timesrather vertical (chimpanzee, monket, buhbaby, panda, bear, giraffe)

This is not a conscious process. Each of the species listed provides certain key stimuli that strongly remind us of special properties of our own species. Non-mammalian species score badly because they are weak in these above respects. Among the birds, the top 2 picks were penguin, which is a vertically walking animal, and parrot, who speaks like a human.

The younger children prefer the bigger animals and the older children prefer the smaller ones. Because smaller children viewing the animals as parent-substitutes and the older children are looking upon them as child-substitutes.

Let’s look at the animal hates:

  1. Snake (27%)
  2. Spider (9.5%)
  3. Crocodile (4.5%)
  4. Lion (.4.5%)
  5. Rat (4%)
  6. Skunk (3%)
  7. Gorilla (3%)
  8. Rhinoceros (3%)
  9. Hippopotamus (2.5%)
  10. Tiger (2.5%)

These animals share one important feature: they are dangerous. Most of them lack the anthropomorphic features that describe the top ten favorites. Most of the people can’t even stand looking at their pictures. They cannot hurt you from the pictures, so what is this disgust?

Two rats, 12 months old, in front of white background
This cute rat couple ranks 5th in the list of most unlikable animals. Awww…

So the fear for top two is very interesting…
An analysis of the reasons given for hating these forms reveals that snakes are disliked because they are slimy an d dirty and spiders are repulsive because they are hairy and creepy. This means that they must have a symbolic significance rather than being dangerous. We might have a powerful inborn response to avoid these animals (MariaExample): 1. They might be symbolizing unwanted sex 2 .Inborn aversion response towards snake-like forms, aversion response has a survival value.

As far as the spider fear is concerned, there is a marked sex difference. The level of reaction to spiders is the same for girls with boys up to the age of puberty, then the fear in females doubles with a sharp increase. This leap in spider hatred that accompanies female puberty because of the growth of unwanted hair on the body of a young girl. That’s why they describe it as ‘nasty, hairy things’ .

FINAL WORDS
At the end of the seventeenth century the world population of naked ape was only 500 million. It has now risen to 7,600 million. Every twenty-four hours it increases by another 150,000. In 210 years’ time, if the rate of increate stays steady – which is unlikely- there will be a seething mass of 400,000 million (400 billion) naked apes crowding the face of the earth. This is scary.

Many exciting species have become extinct in the past and we are no exception. Sooner or later we shall go and make way for something else.

Some people think that our intelligence can dominate all our basic urges. I submit that this is rubbish. Our raw animal nature will never permit it. Of course we are flexible, of course, we are behavioral opportunists, but there are severe limits to the form our opportunism can take. By stressing our biological features in this book, I have tried to show the nature of these restrictions.

If you enjoyed this information as much as I did, don’t forget to add this great book into your library!

Ece

Posted in the USA, Turkey

What I wish I had known before coming to the USA

When I came to the USA in 2008 for the first time, I was in so-called ‘honeymoon stage’: Everything was new and exciting. Even my jet-lag. I was ready to explore, meet new people, eat new food, buy new clothes. However, after about a month, I started to feel frustrated, lonely and tired. Everything was so different that learning curve was painful. So many things that I had to figure out ‘by myself’ and when I couldn’t figure it out, there was no one to cry to.

15183EF9-A31D-4608-A5A7-96568BFFD240
I was really depressed for the first 4-5 months in the USA. I had constant headaches and dark circles around my eyes.

In this post, I would like to share with you the things I wished I had known before I arrived. Although I believe that learning these by experiencing on your own would be challenging but fun, also I know that a lot of people eventually go back to their countries because they can’t cope with these challenges by themselves, especially in the first critical 1-3 months. Statistics say that around 34% of all new college students will drop out in the first year. One of the main reasons is homesickness.

If you want me to define ‘homesickness’, it is not just missing your parents or best friends. It is losing the sense of ‘belonging’, also the fear of  the ‘unknown’ and lacking the strength to fight with ‘problems’ as they hit hard one after another. I remember one day I missed the bus to school which was running  every 30 min. I was running late for the class, so I had to walk to the class in snow. But half way to the school, I realized that my cute looking boots that I bought from Turkey were not suitable for snow. By the time I arrived my class, my socks were soaked in snow water. The very same day I learned that for my thesis, I needed to go on a field trip and camp for at least 40 days. The problem was, I hadn’t had a car or driver’s license at that time, I hadn’t camped in wild at all, not even for one day. Then of course in the evening I felt sick because of the cold and I remember shivering and thinking to myself: If I die here, nobody will know. I’m so alone.

5033_94754654689_223618_n
The car I had to buy with the help of my American family and my campground for my thesis work. I camped 40 days alone in Wilson, KS. There were stormy nights and weird animals around. My allergies were killing me and sun was burning my skin no matter how much sun screen I applied. 

Now, let’s talk about the most important things before you move to the USA:

CULTURE SHOCK, HOMESICKNESS AND HOW TO DEAL WITH THEM 

As I mentioned, it was very difficult for me to adapt the host culture. It took me 5-6 months to start feeling normal. I was home all the time, watching movies and doing homework. I wanted to make friends, go out and explore. But I needed a car to go anywhere in Kansas and it was too hard to make friends. Americans seemed like they were communicating among themselves very effectively and confidently. Yet, I felt like I was left outside. Masters students at Geology department were doing projects together, were going to a bar (Henry’s in Lawrence, KS to be exact) every weekend but nobody was inviting me. That made me feel rejected… How was this even possible? The social butterfly in Turkey (me) had turned into a caterpillar.

Then, we went to this Spain field trip. I was staying with 5 other friends in the same hotel room. We finally started talking about things that are different than geology. We went out at night and we chat about everything. We were laughing, dancing. The whole week we spent in Almeria, Spain, I had gained a part of me back. I thought to myself “I’m still lovable and respectable”. After we returned to KS I joined their gatherings a lot more. When I confessed that I was waiting for an invitation, they were puzzled. They asked me why I waited for an invitation. They said they were discussing about where to go right in front of me, that meant I was automatically invited! Oh boy, how could I know that?!

HPIM0647
Geology friends and I in Almeria, Spain, 2008

Then as I read about it, I realized that it wasn’t only me! There was a science behind it. They mapped the psychological ups and downs. Now, you can learn about it too here and I hope that it will help you during your journey.

Below is a chart that shows the stages of adaptation process to a host culture:

During the first stage, Anticipating Departure, you go through mixed feelings. You are anxious about leaving your family and friends behind. You are trying to be excited but the fear of the unknown still makes you feel on edge.

homesickness

Upon entering the new country, your excitement will be at its top level. This level is called ‘Honeymoon Stage (Emotional High Point)‘. This stage lasts about 1-3 months. Everything is new, there are so many things to explore, so many things to take picture of, to taste and to smell. I still remember the smell of the BBQ sauce on the first ribs that I tried. And the taste of fried pickles. The smell of Britney Spears perfume (There were so many cheap perfumes everywhere). Also, I remember taking a picture of birds and bugs. They looked and sounded different. At this stage, I was like a tourist and I was enjoying it!

Then comes the Critical Low Point. This was the time when I first realized that I didn’t have anyone to share this excitement with. This was the period that I realized, in order to buy a toothpaste or a loaf of bread, I had to drive to Walmart which is 10 minute drive from home. There was a little problem though: I didn’t have a car. I didn’t even have a drivers license. Then I realized my masters program was way different than what I was expecting (It is way different than Turkish education). So much homework, so many lab and field reports. Proposal, poster presentation, application for scholarships and funding, everything had strict deadlines. Besides, my adviser was horrible, so it didn’t help my adaptation process at all. I remember crying in front of her once. I truly think she didn’t care.

Then comes the ‘Initial Adjustment‘. When I met my Turkish neighbors, Fatih abi and Zeynep Abla, I felt so happy, they were letting me borrow their car so that I could do groceries whenever I wanted. I had figured out the school’s system better, so I was finally meeting the deadlines and I was made aware of the danger called ‘plagiarism’ (please read more about it here: http://www.plagiarism.org/article/what-is-plagiarism).  On the Spain trip  I mentioned earlier, I had gotten closer with my American friends, I had joined ISA (International Student Association) which was the best decision I have ever made. In this organization, I met so many international students who were going through the same stages as me. This was such a good relief. Besides, we were having so much fun while we were learning about each other’s cultures. For the very first time, everything seemed to be working… Until the next stage…

1930803_29347539689_8071_n
Our Turkish community in Lawrence, KS. My best friend, Aslihan, who helped me adjust my new home, is sitting right in front of me. The fourth one from right standing is Zeynep Abla and the first one from right sitting is Fatih Abi, who helped me a lot during my adjustment period.

540_37870069689_1918_n

960248_10151551341164690_958966958_n
Being a part of the International Student Association and International Student and Scholar Services was the best decision I have ever made.

Confronting Deeper Issues‘ is an interesting stage. Because this is the stage after which you decide to stay or go back. Also, if you decide to stay, this is the stage that will make you more mature than ever. This is the time period that your communication with your home country gets little disrupted: Some friends of yours stop talking to you, or they get really busy with their own lives that they become not as available as they were before to chat. Suddenly when you look around, you see that you are living in a dorm or in an apartment with used furniture, your school work is a constant struggle, you are still trying to figure things out: You are trying to understand why your new friends are not checking in even though they know that you are sick. You are still trying to figure out how to open a bank account and call the bank when a problem arises. You, for the first time in your life, shovel the snow. You can’t figure out why your engine is not working after a freezing night. What is that scary storm alarm? Why do you have to make reservation for a taxi 24 hours in advance?? What is a social security number and how do you get it? What is credit history? Why do you even need it? How do I pay taxes here? While working on those complicated issues, your friends and your relatives in your country are getting married, getting promotions, celebrating birthdays, having babies. Your family members are having health problems, and you can’t be there. This feeling of ‘helplessness’ -can’t help anyone, can’t even help myself- is a real struggle. Because of these negative feelings, you will tend to focus on negatives, so you will start using phrases like “This is easier in my country” “This tastes better in my hometown” “In my country, they do this way differently! Ugh” So this is why it is called ‘deeper issues’; you question everything: your family and friendships, YOU and your country’s weaknesses and strengths. This is the stage you analyze all the ups and downs you had.

‘Adapting and Assimilating Stage’ is the best. You realize that you can enjoy the new culture while still keeping your core values. You accept the difficulties, find ways to solve them. You accept the good sides and bad sides of your own country and the host country. For example, I really like how people respect you as an individual and give you your own space in the US. Also the fact that the system rewards you if you work hard. But I still miss the warmth, friendliness, helpfulness and randomness of people in Turkey.

In this stage, your small circle of friends and acquaintances keep you occupied. Finally, you start traveling or focusing on your hobbies. Finally, you think about buying new furniture for your apartment, maybe some plants, some photos and paintings? You start to invite people over and cook for them. You start to find what to discuss with Americans since you know the local sports teams, TV shows and local news. You enjoy the cultural exchange; learning about their culture and teaching yours.

Finally there is this ‘Reverse Cultural Shock‘ stage which is labeled as ‘re-entry adjustment‘ in the chart. After you adjusted yourself and accepted your host country as your ‘home’, going back will be a different experience. Your people will be more different than where you left them. It will be hard to explain them what you saw, what you experienced. Some of them won’t understand very easily. They might underestimate the difficulties you went through and think that what you encountered could not be such big deal because you live in the strongest country in the world. You are finally in your country, the food is great, you go to the places that you missed, meet up with people that you love but then you can’t help but focus on rude people, traffic, long bank lines, smokers, governmental procedures, so many things that will annoy you, and you wished that were different. You will have difficulty adjusting back to your own culture. Frankly, I think this was the weirdest feeling that I experienced in this all adjustment period.

MY SUGGESTION:

If you are going through any of the above stages, I have a few suggestions for you:

  • Get involved! Socialize. This is crucially important. Put yourself out there. Sign up for a student organization, or find your country’s cultural group, or join meet-ups. Go to school gatherings and talk to people. Don’t be afraid about your English. People in America are used to accents. Also, you are the one who knows two languages! I have found it easier to socialize with international students or expats rather than Americans because we all were going through the same issues.
  • Make your living space unique, your style. Place things that will give you positive energy around your room: Pictures of your family, your best friend’s gift, your favorite book, a Star Wars poster, a fish tank or a cute little plant. Make your living space your ‘shelter’ your own ‘peaceful space’.
  • If you are a student, contact your school’s international students services office. Learn about activities, deadlines, etc.
  • Talk to your family and friends back home via Whatsapp, Facetime or Skype regularly. It really helps.
  • Stay connected with your peeps on social media. If you don’t have one, open a Facebook, Twitter or Instagram account.
  • Get hobbies! You can keep the old ones or you can find new ones. You can read a book, write a blog, take drawing or dancing lessons. It is always great doing something different than papers and work.
  • Get an on-campus job if you can. It keeps you busy, allows you to meet different people, besides you make some pocket money!
  • Save money for your future trips! There are so many places to see in the USA! You would like to visit these places before you leave.
  • Exercise! When you start exercising (at gym or at home) you will be in a way better mood.
  • Eat healthy food. Eating crappy food everyday will also make your mood crappy.
  • Be careful about parties. American colleges are party lands. They start partying on Thursday and it continues till Sunday. Of course it is your right to join these parties and have fun, but do not forget about your reason to be here. Do not get side tracked, or alcohol poisoned.

SHOPPING

Have you ever spent 1.5 hours in a supermarket? It is ridiculous. It was my first time in Walmart: It was like going to IKEA, but for food. That is how big it was. Now another question: Have you ever spent $100 for food for 1 person? I did. I was so curious about the new brands, new tastes that I realized I bought too much stuff. Plus, back home, I used to shop for 3 people: my brother, my father and I. I guess I just didn’t know how much a single person would eat (Bloggers note: Also, do not go grocery shopping when you are hungry)

walmart
Walmart is the world’s largest company by revenue – approximately US$480 billion according to the Fortune Global 500 list in 2016. Its grocery stores are humongous. 

LEARN ABOUT YOUR AREA

Public Transportation

In the US, most cities do not have a good public transportation. This wasn’t a problem for my Saudi Arabian students who mostly drive anywhere back home, but if you are from Turkey, you might have a difficulty getting used to driving everywhere. When I lived in Chicago public transportation was great. There were two trains running 24 hours. You could go anywhere in the city by buses or train/metro (known as ‘L’). In Boston, also the public transportation works pretty well. You can definitely see public transportation in New York City, Jersey City, Washington (in Seattle), Philadelphia, Los Angeles, and San Francisco. But other places are usually a hit or miss. So please arrange your budget accordingly: Are you going to need a car? How much are second hand cars? How do you get a driver’s license?

chicago
Chicago L system. ‘Brown line’ goes through downtown loop area.

Learn About Crime Rate in Your Area

It was around midnight when I woke up from my sleep with sounds of gunfire in my apartment in Uptown, Chicago. Someone was killed in our backyard. It was a gang crossfire. Then I couldn’t help but think ‘What if I was taking the trash out at that exact time?” I wished I had lived in a safer area. Bear in mind that the less safe neighborhoods will have cheaper housing options. So, if you are going to live in an apartment, and you are looking for cheap rent, make sure to check the crime rate online. One of the options you have is here:  Go to http://www.mylocalcrime.com to check the crimes around the area you are planning to live in. Don’t forget, there will always be some sort of crime reported. Americans are pretty good about reporting a crime.

Check the Weather

Please check the climate and weather information about the city before you arrive. Some people cannot really survive in cold and in some cities in the US it is brutally cold, especially if you are from a country that has warm climate. My students from Turkey, Brazil, Colombia, Saudi Arabia were complaining about how cold Chicago and Boston were. But my students from Northern Europe and Russia were totally fine with it. Also, don’t forget to check the weather everyday before you leave home, because it might change pretty quickly.

Here are two videos about two extremes: A little girl Mila is talking about Arizona summers (42 Celsius-average, 49 Celsius recorded) and in the second one you see a news report talking about last December’s arctic wave.

What is the City Like?

Some of my friends confessed me that before they arrived in Kansas, they were expecting to see skyscrapers, expensive cars, bars, restaurants and cafes everywhere (In other words, they were expecting to find a replica of New York City). They imagined lots of people in the streets. Instead, this was what they got:

lawrence
Lawrence, KS downtown (city center), Mass Street. Doesn’t look like New York City, does it?

Learn what your city offers and what its limits are. For example, if you live in a bigger city, your chances of finding a market that sells ingredients for your cuisine are high. Also, if the city has colleges and these universities with international students, then you are lucky. Again, you probably will find some international markets or restaurants in your city. But frankly, don’t expect to find Iskender kebab in Idaho, or grape leaves in a market in Mississippi. However, one thing I learned about America is that it can surprise you. So, I cannot speak for sure.

ELECTRONICS

converter
Converter that you need for the USA

Do not bring your electronics here other than your computer and phone charger (if you need to). Because of the voltage difference, your electronic devices will break down. While it is 220-230 V in most European, African and Asian countries, it is 120 V in the US (https://www.worldstandards.eu/electricity/plug-voltage-by-country/). It happened to me with my toothbrush charger, hair straightener and epilator. First they worked slowly, then they completely stopped working. Besides, you will need a converter (see the image) if you are using a device from your country in the US.

EXPENSIVE HEALTHCARE

Do you remember those days that you had a migraine or persistent stomachache and you couldn’t help and went to emergency room? Well… You can’t do that in this country unless you are wealthy enough. Let’s look at this hospital bill of Peter Drier, 37,  who had a neck hernia surgery in 2013:

hospital bill

You can read his full story here: https://www.nytimes.com/2014/09/21/us/drive-by-doctoring-surprise-medical-bills.html

As you can see ‘ER General’ Says $976. Let’s say your insurance will cover half of it. You still will need to pay about 500$. Also, let me remind you, monthly insurance payments vary but they can go from 150$ to 500$ a month. So, please do not get sick in the US.

Dentists are also another story. These numbers are taken from the website: http://www.phoenixendodontist.com/blog/root-canal-cost-vs-cost-of-implant

dental

The most pricey ones are implants, as you all know. So, let’s look at this comparison:

Dental-Implant-Cost-by-Country1

As you can see, there is a huge gap between the medical costs in the US and in other countries. One might argue that the equipment used is the highest technology and that is why the costs are high. Although I believe this is partly true, there is also the fact that hospitals are trying to find ways to get more of your money. If you are rich, you get the best treatment. If you are poor, you might get a below average treatment and we don’t care if you die in 10 years. I’m not talking about doctors or nurses here, I’m talking about the health system. Insurance is also such a complicated issue that (deductibles, in network versus out of network, HMO PDO plans, etc) I still have many questions and confusions even after 6 years I spent here.

BE AWARE OF SCAMS

When you are looking for a room to rent or a car to buy, be aware of scams. They will try to get your money or credit card information by sending genuine-looking emails. Especially with Craigslist, you have to be extra careful. One of the ways you can understand if the email is scam or not, scam ones tend to have too many personal details or many grammar or spelling mistakes. Let’s look at this example:

scam

As you can see from this email, the person is in Alabama and he will ‘mail’ the keys to them once the buyer sends the security payment. Do not fall for this, my friends. No realtor, no landlord will ask for your money without meeting face to face. They would NEVER mail you the keys, either. Look at all the grammar mistakes he made! Especially in the last paragraph: “My job factor” “very saddened (without ‘I am’)” “very perfect (no native will say this)” “you meet up with application process?? (haha application process is a person’s name I guess)” “my keys will be mail to you (Wrong passive voice usage)” and nobody will use “God” in their ads. This is also a big red flag.

Another thing that you should be careful about is the phone calls you will get while in the US. I remember one time a person called me and said they were from “Credit Card Protection Services” and my card needed to be protected. They had a jingle and everything when they put me on hold. They sounded real! But then he insisted on learning my credit card number. I was trying to be polite but at that moment I understood that they were just a scam.

Your phone or internet company, maybe AT&T, Xfinity, etc. They will keep calling you as well. They will try to convince you to upgrade your plan, which means you will have to pay more. I remember when I first moved in the US, I got a call and the person was speaking English with a heavy Indian accent and he was so fast that I had no idea what he was talking about. After saying ‘Could you repeat please?’ like 2 times, I gave up and I started to say ‘Yes’ to everything he said. After about 3 and a half minutes, we hung up. Oh Lord, at that moment, I was so relieved. Well… The following month my telephone bill came and it was 250$. Apparently I had upgraded my internet and phone to the most expensive plan!!! It was painful to call them back and fix everything again.

LEARN ABOUT YOUR VISA (STATUS) AND ITS RESTRICTIONS

Some students come here with the wrong idea that they can both go to school and work. For student visas J-1 and F-1 you cannot work except campus employment. There is also a myth that your SSN (Social Security Number) allows you to work legally in the US. Again, this is a myth. If you are working without a valid work permit, you will get in trouble. People who are caught working illegally are deported and they can never come back to the US again. Please read the below link carefully:

https://www.uscis.gov/working-united-states/students-and-exchange-visitors/students-and-employment

LEARN ABOUT AMERICAN CULTURE

Before you come tho the US, you have to learn about American culture. While most western countries have similar cultural elements with Americans, when you compare Asian, African, Latin and Middle Eastern culture to America, you get a very different picture. I can only speak for my own cultural experience, of course.

  • Americans prefer indirect communication in one sense and direct one in another. For example, it is not OK to ask about one’s salary, their personal life or their illness. You cannot comment on their hair looking messy or the pimple on their nose (unless they are your best friends). Before giving any criticism, you have to make sure that your words are encouraging and friendly. While discussing about racism, gender inequality, you have to be extra extra careful not to offend anybody. On the other hand, when they ask a question, they usually want a straight answer. They appreciate honesty. Let me give you a funny example. My first year in the States, we went to a bar with my friends from Geology department. My friend asked me if I wanted a beer. Because I was culturally programmed that way, I said ‘No, thanks’ Even though I would, of course, want a free beer! (duh) In Turkey, when someone offers something, it is polite to refuse it for the first time. That’s why you should keep offering till the person finally says yes. Well, after my first ‘No’ my friend said ‘OK’ and just left!!! Haha. I was like: “But… But…How about my beer??”
  • Americans will have this distance from you that is called “personal bubble”. Forget about getting intimate on the train, in the movie line or restaurants. Forget about giving a warm friendly kiss to your friend on the cheek. Forget about giving random hugs to your colleagues. Oh and of course, forget about hand jokes including hitting on the head or back. My American friends walking down in Taksim Square, Istanbul were so confused with the fact that guys were walking arm in arm, girls were holding hands but they weren’t gay or lesbian. They were just showing friendly affection. Also, not only at work or school but be aware of the personal bubble in the customs at the airport. One day, one of my students with a very low level of English was trying to tell the customs officer her purpose of visit. The envelope that she handed to the officer included some complicated paper work. So, my student wanted to help and leaned towards the officer and put her arm through in the glass. That moment was the scariest memory of her. The officer went for his gun in a tiny fraction of time and yelled a ‘Put your hands up!’. She was questioned for half an hour after this incident.
  • Most Americans are religious. All Protestant denominations accounted for 51.3%, while the Catholic Church by itself, at 23.9% is the largest individual denomination. God is the Father, Jesus Christ is the Son and there is Holy Spirit. This is what they call ‘Trinity”. In Catholic belief, Virgin Mary is holy. Christians’ holy book is holy Bible and they worship every Sunday at church. Unfortunately, I’m not a very knowledgeable person when it comes to religion, but please do some research before you come to the States. I highly recommend going to church one day, it is a remarkable, interesting experience.
  • When you are driving, if a police officer stops you, DO NOT LEAVE YOUR CAR. Pull your car off the road, stop your engine and wait. There might be an awkward 5 minutes that you are sitting in your seat and the officer is sitting in his seat. What he is doing is that he is communicating with the main office and trying to gather information about your license plate before he talks to you. Also, don’t even try bribing. Bribery is one of the biggest offenses in the States. You can literally go to jail.
pol
When the police officer stops you, just pull over, roll down your window and wait in your seat.
  • Americans love socializing and entertaining people. You will find yourself eating and drinking out a lot. Watch those pounds on the scale! I have personally gained 22 pounds (10 kilos) here! Their burger, fries, BBQ and pizza are the best! Make sure you exercise daily! Although Americans are famous for the high obesity rates, they are also aware of self care. Most Americans that I met don’t smoke, and more than half of it exercise daily. It is such a great motivation (!) when you open your mouth to eat that juicy greasy slice of pizza, you see those runners outside running in snow with their perfect bodies. Another reason why it is easy to get fat here is the amount of variation. Variety of snacks, alcohol, soups, sauces, Indian food, Viatnemese Pho, Chinese dim sum, Korean BBQ, Italian lasagna, Brazilian steak… You want to try all. Then you get fat.
binnys
Choices, choices, more choices. A liquor store in Chicago, IL.

I hope this article will help you before your adventure begins in the USA or in another country! Make the most of it! Many wonderful memories are awaiting! Enjoy this incredible experience 🙂

Hoşçakalın!

-Ece

HPIM2397
Thompson Canyon, Utah, the USA-  Indian Petroglyphs, 2009
Posted in Turkey

Crazy Turks

When you ask any Turkish person what they are proud of about being Turkish, they will mention:

  1. Their food
  2. Their country’s history
  3. Their country’s nature

None of them will talk about how ‘practical’ their minds are or how they all have a good ‘sense of humor’ because they were raised to be modest (at least, most of them). But as in every culture that once experienced prolonged times of poverty, Turks are very resourceful and they are hilarious. Let me define resourcefulness first. Google says:

re·source·ful·ness
rəˈsôrsfəlnəs/
noun
  1. the ability to find quick and clever ways to overcome difficulties.
    “his films show remarkable technical resourcefulness”

It totally makes sense actually; the more you come across with problems, the more you think of different ways to solve those issues. Sometimes it becomes so crucial to solve the problem immediately that you don’t feel the urge to care about the safety measures. Because if you don’t finish that task fast or right away, you won’t get the money or you will get fired.

Let’s look at some examples:

yurdum-manzara1
Even flood cannot stop me from serving tea!
yurdum-insanından-manzaralar
Scooter-limo? Why not? 🙂
yurduminsani
They for sure packed everything
yurdum-insanı-komik
BBQ comes first!
yurdum-insani
Who cares about a stool?! This is more fun!
2160-0-86e558dbdddbd1480d4bac9ab3b1b0b1
“Well, they told me I have to have my plate number in the back, so I did”
a12b36ae598e5b8eb34f98ab806dad1c
This looks actually fun!
turk-insani-cozum-insani_d620
when the bucket doesn’t fit in the sink!
53f86b7bfa4315a983f904808d80acb0--turkish-people-search
This is my favorite! Smart kiddo!
9fbc822ce9a96dacf31f13a777fa88ba_400x400
Portable shower and showerer
a9891d068f6fa1d824e8cf486b30d87d
One wheel is missing? Who cares? My wife will put her weight on the side. Physics 101.

work-smarter-not-harder-gary-tremolada

55eab8d6f018fbb8f8928429
When you have to serve tea nonstop during the day, this invention comes in handy
55eab8d6f018fbb8f8928423
That circling light bulb though…
55eab8d6f018fbb8f8928425
work shouldn’t stop just because you forgot your mask at home
55eab8d6f018fbb8f892841b
Music shouldn’t stop just because you forgot your speakers at home

icon

I’m sure this picture above terrifies most of you, and the guy standing must agree with you haha

Komik-Türk-İcatları-3
If you didn’t understand yet how much Turks care about their tea, maybe now you do?

 

 

download
If the heater is broken, that doesn’t mean we can’t warm up!
2131-yaratici-yurdum-insani-501a108d4e944
Boarding school, dorm solutions 1
IMG_1702
Boarding school, dorm solutions 2 (making popcorn)

 

zeki-turk-insani_d620
Again, there is no time to wait for security precautions, “We got this!”
43
When the AC is not working well enough in the bus (look up)

 

38
Let’s see how much I can carry…
40
Not to worry if there will be enough seats, wherever you go 🙂
28
I don’t know how to explain this. Haha. I think he is the painter who is painting the walls of an abandoned bank. But the way he is looking at you is like “I can do your ATM work manually, and half naked.” haha
26
When you are tired of the rain and grab a beach umbrella from an ice cream station
19
When the conversation takes longer than expected
40541_4c47932f8feea7f32c429dc2b2109478_large
As long as it doesn’t hurt… Like, anybody.
_780x519-a0ejgjszim
Bowling requires a perfectly globular watermelon!
_780x522-xqtoa1uhf5
Who said we cannot fit everybody??
12348a4e7557fc5df343ad54eaa3d422--water-fountains-m-turk
Let’s cool down together with our little and happy home-made fountain
yurdum-insani-iste-boyle-serinledi-0
I don’t care about how I look, it is too sunny, OK?
camasir-makinesi-kapagini-kumes-kapisi-yapti-10060353_o
This teyze turned her old washing machine into a hencoop.
2151440560246
The very first selfie stick in the world was invented by Turkish shepherds.

HUMOR TIME

When you meet a Turkish person, 75% chance that they will have a good sense of humor. I really did not study the reason why or how this has become a part of our culture, but it is. Even in the toughest times we manage to smile, make people laugh. Maybe when you have a history full of rough times, this is the only way to deal with the problems as they come along. Most Turkish jokes are cultural or caricatures are written in Turkish but I thought these pictures below might give you a tiny glimpse of it.

saruman
Former governor of Istanbul Huseyin Avni Mutlu was in headlines during the Gezi Park events-pictured top right  (Which I will discuss in my future articles in detail) and he was criticized by this funny analogy with Saruman from the LOTR
_780x575-dxegdh2its
Real 3D?
maxresdefault
Teenager focusing problems…

1374-27-d2b39dc213ac099f6b592f79609d6013

 

1580ac51dfdqa
A funeral ceremony with Imam and people praying. They had so much free time I guess 🙂 RIP
images (1)
seed art
a9925468dsad
When creativity has no limits…
0x0-yurdum-insani-bakin-neler-yapti-1497337085577
This restaurant must have signed a contract with Ronaldo… NOT.
0x0-yurdum-insani-is-basinda-1508576060664
Hope it doesn’t jump on him
yurdum-insani-yine-yapti-yapacagini-1459926478_15546420160
They buried themselves and somebody else secretly planted those grave stone looking stone blocks.. HAHAHA
756xauto-1489157341689345_1_7225971
Dreams…
çaylaaaaar
I don’t think this meant to be a joke 😀 Why not personalizing your product?

motosiklet-komik

4664dff3sad
Because he needs to warm up? I guess?
4a89327adsa
‘Kar’ means ‘snow’ in Turkish 🙂
Komik-Türk-İcatları-13
We can still make it look pretty

Hope you enjoyed this post! I will see you next Wednesday, with my new article!

-Ece

Posted in books

‘Everybody Lies: Big Data, New Data’ By Seth Stephens-Davidowitz

I must confess that I have learned a lot from this book. The more I learned about the true nature of the human beings, the more I have experienced a wide range of feelings… I felt disgusted, scared, then as the stories moved along, I felt surprised and started laughing! Then I felt angry again. The author used Google searches to measure racismself-induced abortiondepressionchild abusehateful mobsthe science of humorsexual preferenceanxiety, son preference, and sexual insecurity, among many other topics. This great emotional roller coaster book is written by the internet data expert Seth Stephens-Davidowitz.

Davidowitz worked for one-and-a-half years as a data scientist at Google and is currently a contributing op-ed writer for the New York Times. He is a former visiting lecturer at the Wharton School at the University of Pennsylvania. He received his BA in philosophy, Phi Beta Kappa, from Stanford, and his PhD in economics from Harvard.

His 2017 book that I will review today, Everybody Lies, published by HarperCollins, was a New York Times bestseller; a PBS NewsHour Book of the Year; and an Economist Book of the Year.

Enjoy.

For this study, Davidowitz downloaded all of Wikipedia, pored through Facebook profiles, and scraped Stormfront. Plus PornHub, gave him its complete data on the searches and video views of anonymous people around the world.

Google Trends, a tool that was released with little fanfare in 2009, tells users how frequently any word or phrase has been searched in different locations at different times. The everyday act  of typing a word or phrase into a compact, rectangular white box leaves a small trace of truth that, when multiplied by millions, eventually reveals profound realities.

RELATIONSHIPS: On Google, the top complaint about marriage is not having sex: Searches for “sexless marriage” are three and a half times more common than “unhappy marriage” and eight times more common than “loveless marriage”. Relationship themed most searches are “abusive relationship” 😦

il_fullxfull.521965914_gixb

Sometimes new data reveals cultural differences: The writer gives the example of different ways that men around the world respond to their wives being pregnant. In Mexico, the top searches about “my pregnant wife” include “frases de amor para mi esposa embarazada” (words of love to my pregnant wife” and “poemes para mi esposa embarazada” (poems for my pregnant wife”. In the United States, the top searches include “my wife is pregnant now what” and “my wife is pregnant what do I do.” (Blogger’s note: Nope. Not as romantic.)

After daters took some recording with them and data analysts digitized these audios into words, we had an interesting set of information about how to have a successful first date! On the first date, for instance, one of the ways a man signals that he is attracted is obvious: he laughs at a woman’s jokes. When speaking, they limit the range of their pitch. There is a research that suggests a monotone voice is often seen by women as masculine. The scientists found that a woman signals her interest by varying her pitch, speaking more softly, and taking shorter turns talking. A woman is unlikely to be interested when she uses hedge words and phrases such as “probably” or “I guess”. Also, a woman is likely to be interested if she is using “I” and self making phrases such as “Ya know?” and “I mean”. This research revealed that men are more likely to report clicking with a woman who talks about herself. If there are lots of questions asked on a date, it is less likely that both will report a connection.

baddate

Among the Facebook data scientists’ findings, Christmas is one of the happiest days of the year BUT Davidowitz doesn’t trust Facebook data very much: He thinks Facebook is digital brag-to-my-friends-about-how-good-my-life-is serum. In Facebook world, family life seems perfect, in the real world, family life is messy. So don’t trust relationship posts very much.

Compare, for example, the way that people describe their husbands on public social media and in anonymous searches:

facebook

So human beings are liars? NO WAY! haha!

FEMALE-MALE: Parents are 2.5 more likely to ask “Is my son gifted?” than “Is my daughter gifted?” Parents show a similar bias when using other phrases related to intelligence that they may shy away from saying aloud, like, “Is my son a genius?”. Which is funny is that in American schools, girls are 9 percent more likely than boys to be in gifted programs. So what are the most searches about daughters?: “Is my daughter overweight?” This phrase was searched roughly as frequently as they Google “Is my son overweight?”

Parents are also 1.5 times more likely to ask whether their daughter is beautiful than whether their son is handsome. And they are 3 times more likely to ask whether their daughter is ugly than whether their son is ugly. (Author’s note: How Google is expected to know whether a child is beautiful or ugly is hard to say 🙂 ) (Bloggers note: Maybe parents are the ones who were causing females’ insecurities about how they look?). In general, parents seem more likely to use positive words in questions about sons.

Another interesting male/female difference: women use the word “tomorrow” far more often than men do. Adding the letter “o” to the word “so” like “Sooo” is one of the most feminine linguistic traits.

On Facebook, among the words used much more frequently by men than women are “fuck” “shit” “bullshit” “Fucking and Fuckers ” (Blogger’s note: Dear men, take a chill pill! haha) Whereas for women it is “shopping””excited” “cute” “happy””family” “soooo” “yay”(Blogger’s note: Soooo happy to be a woman! Yay!”)

SEX: Data science makes many parts of Freud falsifiable – it puts many of his famous theories to the test. For example: Freud’s theory of the phallic (shape of male genital) symbols in dreams. According to big data, the substance that is most dreamed is water. The top twenty foods include chicken, bread, sandwiches, and rice – all notably un-Freudian. Bananas are the second most common fruit to appear in dreams. But they are also the second most commonly consumed fruit

banana

Consider all Google searches of the form “I want to have sex with my…” The number one way to complete this search is “mom”. 😮 Overall, more than 3/4 of searches of this form are incestuous. Again, according to Google and PornHub Data, men retain an inordinate number of fantasies related to childhood (including mom, babysitter, wearing diapers, breast feeding, etc.)

Americans search for “porn”more than they search for “weather”.

There are twice as many complaints that a boyfriend won’t have sex than that a girlfriend won’t have sex. By far, the number one search complaint about a boyfriend is “My boyfriend won’t have sex with me”.

Do women care about penis size? Rarely, according to Google researches. More than 40%
of complaints about a partner’s penis size say that it’s too big. For every search women make a partner’s phallus, men make roughly 170 searches about their own! Men’s second most common sex question is how to make their sexual encounters longer. Once again, the insecurities of men do not appear to match the concerns of women. Women’s concern isn’t about when or how long it happened but why it isn’t happening at all.

However, women still outpace them when it comes to insecurity about how they look.

insecurity

In 2004, in some parts of the US, the most common search regarding changing one’s butt was how to make it smaller. Beginning in 2010, however, the desire for bigger butts grew. Does women’s growing preference for a larger bottom match men’s preferences? Interestingly, yes. Again internet says men show a preference for large breasts. But natural ones: About 3 percent of big-breast porn searches explicitly say they want to see natural breasts (Blogger’s note: Thank you Beyonce, J-Lo, Rihanna and Kim Kardashian!!)

Men make as many searches looking for ways to perform oral sex on themselves as they do how to give a woman an orgasm (This was among authors favorite facts in Google search data) (Blogger’s note: How is it even possible?? And nope, I won’t Google it!)

RACISM: Roughly one in every hundred Google searches that included the word “Obama” also included “kkk” or “nigger(s)”. There was a darkness and hatred that was hidden from the traditional sources but was quite apparent in the searches that people made. Places with the highest racist search rates included upstate New York, western Pennsylvania, eastern Ohio, industrial Michigan and rural Illinois, along with West Virginia, southern Louisiana and Mississippi. The true divide, Google search data suggested, was not South versus North; it was East versus West, and racism was not limited to Republicans.

Black Americans told polls they would turn out in large numbers to oppose Trump. But Google searches for information on voting in heavily black areas were way down.

You can see on Google, where users ask sometimes questions such as “Why are black people rude?” or “Why are Jews evil? Below, in order, are the top five negative words used in searches about various groups:

IMG_1862
Top 5 negative words used in searchers for specific groups

Shortly after the mass shooting in San Bernardino, California on December 2, 2015, the top search in CA with the word “Muslims” in it at the same time was “kill Muslims”.

What is super interesting that as Obama gave more speeches on TV about ‘equality’ and ‘racism’ it created an opposite effect. In his speech, he said “It is the responsibility  of All Americans – of every faith – to reject discrimination” Searches calling Muslims “terrorists” “bad””violent” and “evil” doubled during and shortly after the speech (But then one of Obama’s speeches succeeded, to find out which one, keep reading!)

Guess when are searches for “nigger(s)” or “nigger jokes” most common? Whenever African-Americans are in the news. Among the periods when such searches were highest was the immediate aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, when television and newspapers showed images of desperate black people in New Orleans struggling for their survival. They also went up during Obama’s first election. And searches for “nigger jokes” rise on average about 30% on Martin Luther King Jr. Day. Davidowitz claims that there is a hidden explicit racism in the USA.

HURRICANE KATRINA VICTIMS OUTSIDE SUPERDOME
Victims of Hurricane Katrina argue with National Guard Troops as they try to get on buses headed to Houston, TX on Thursday morning, September 1, 2005.

POLITICS: Nate Silver,  an American statistician and writer, noticed that the areas where Trump performed best made for an odd map. Silver looks for variables to try to explain this map. Then he found that the single factor that best correlated with Donald Trump’s support in the Republican primaries was that made the most Google searches for “nigger”.

Google searches for “how to vote” or “where to vote” weeks before an election can accurately predict which parts of the country are going to have a big showing at the polls.

The most important year for developing political views is age 18 (Blogger note: I guess voting age being 18 was the right decision).

STRESS: Google searches reflecting anxiety tend to be higher in places with lower levels of education, lower median incomes, and where a larger portion of the population lives in rural areas.

The author was surprised with one fact. you would think that people would search for more jokes when they are sad or depressed to cheer themselves up. However, data shows that searches for jokes are lowest on Mondays, the day when people report they are most unhappy. They are lowest on cloudy and rainy days. They actually seek out jokes when things are going well in life.

In winter months, warn climates, such as that of Honolulu, Hawaii, have 40 percent fewer depression searches than cold climates, such as that of Chicago, Illinois.

HEALTH: In Google, searching for a back pain and then yellowing skin turned out to be a sign of pancreatic cancer; searching for just back pain alone made it unlikely someone had pancreatic cancer. These weren’t listed as symptoms before.

We tend to overestimate the prevalence of anything that makes for a memorable story. People rank tornadoes as a more common cause of death than asthma. In fact, asthma causes about seventy times more deaths. But deaths by asthma don’t stand out- and don’t make the news. Same goes for flu and shark attacks.

Search rates for self-induced abortion were fairly steady from 2004 through 2007. They began to rise in late 2008, coinciding with the financial crisis and the recession that followed. They took a big leap in 2011 jumping 40% – when 92 state provisions restricted access to abortion were enacted. The state with the highest Google searches for self-induced abortions in Mississippi, a state with roughly three million people and, now, just one abortion clinic.

UNEMPLOYMENT: Google engineers created a service: Google Correlate that gives solitaire-logooutside researchers the means to experiment with the same type of analyses across a wide range of fields. One day Davidowitz put the US unemployment rate from 2004 through 2011 into Google Correlate. Of the trillions of Google researches during that time, what do you think turned out to be the most tightly connected to unemployment? “New jobs”? No. It was “Slutload” That’s right the most frequent search was a pornographic site. Many are stuck at home, alone and bored. The second most common search: Spider Solitaire. Again, not so surprising.

More rich people in a city means the poor there live longer. Poor people in NYC for example, lives a lot longer than poor people in Detroit: Contagious behavior maybe driving some of this (Behaviors like healthy eating habits, exercising, less stress, etc.)

SPORTS: The data tells us that in worse-off families. in worse-off communities, there are NBA-level talents who are not in the NBA.

Internet data shows that the most important year in a man’s life for the purposes of cementing his favorite baseball team as an adult, is when he is more or less 8 years old. This peak age for women is 22.

HOW BIG DATA WORKS: In prediction business, you just need to know that something works, not why. For example: Before a hurricane hit Southeast in 2004, Walmart (the biggest supermarket chain in the US) suspected -correctly- that people’s shopping habits may change when a city is about to be pummeled by a storm. They pored through sales data from previous hurricanes to see what people might want to buy. A major answer? Strawberry Pop-Tarts. This product sells seven times faster than normal in the days leading up to a hurricane. We don’t ask why, we care about what.

straw

By using Google Ngrams, you can search through millions of digitized books for particular words or phrase. This way, you can see how the popularity of a phrase changed among hundreds of years.

 

If you type “Why is…” the first two Google auto-completes currently are “Why is the sky blue?” and “Why is there a leap day?” suggesting these are the two most common ways to complete this search. The third: “Why is my poop green?” And Google auto-complete can get disturbing. Today, if you type “Is it normal to want to…” the first suggestion is “kill” If you type in “Is it normal to want to kill…” The first suggestion is my family.

People are seven times more likely to ask Google whether they will regret not having children than whether they will regret having children. Adults with children are 3.6 times more likely to tell Google they regret their decision than are adults without children.

MARKETING: One day, across the internet, the researchers found 949 scanned yearbooks from American high schools spanning the years 1905-2013. Americans, and particularly women, started smiling as the years pass by. They went from nearly stone-faced at the start of the twentieth century to beaming by the end.

When photographs were first invented, people thought of them like paintings. Subjects in photos adopted the same look. In the mid-20th century, Kodak, the film and camera company was frustrated by the limited numbers of pictures people were taking and ended up with a strategy to get them take more. Kodak’s advertising began associating photos with happiness. (Blogger’s note: SO CLEVER, isn’t it? This reminded me of the increase in dental cleaning appointments since ‘selfies’ became a thing. Although, I’m sure dentists are not behind this whole selfie craziness).

IMG_1863

Answer these questions for me:

  • Have you ever cheated on an exam?
  • Have you ever killed someone in your dream?

Were you tempted to lie? Many people under-report embarrassing behaviors and thoughts on surveys. They want to look good, even though most surveys are anonymous. This is called social desirability bias. Why do people misinform anonymous surveys? Roger Tourangeau, a research professor emeritus at the University of Michigan explains: “About 1/3 of the time, people lie in real life. The habits carry over to surveys.”

Netflix was confused because in the beginning, when it let its users to create a queue of movies to watch later, they realized something odd. When the users were reminded of these movies later, they rarely clicked. Because they were filling the queue with award winning highbrow films like black and white World War II or foreign movies. But when they come home from work, they were clicking on at lowbrow comedies or romance films. They were lying to themselves. So, Netflix created an algorithm based on users’ choices. The former data scientist at Netflix, Xavier Amatriain says “The algorithms know you better than you know yourself”.

Also, apparently on Facebook or YouTube, “Content is more likely to become viral the more positive it is”. (Bloggers note: I found this very strange when I think about my news feed which is full of bad news.)

CRIME: For every percentage point increase in the unemployment rate, there was an associated 3 percent increase in the search rate for “child abuse” or “child neglect”. The author argues that it’s safe to say that the Great Recession did make child abuse worse, although the traditional measures did not show it but Big Data did.

BIG DATA LESSON: When we lecture angry people, the search data implies that their fury can grow. But subtly provoking people’s curiosity, giving new information, and offering new images of the group that is stoking their rage may turn their thoughts in different, more positive directions. According to Google researches, Obama’s one of the most successful speech was this: “Muslim Americans are our friends and our neighbors, our co-workers, our sports heroes and yes, they are our men and women in uniform, who are willing to die in defense of our country.”

Here is his speech:

DOPPELGANGERS AND A/B TESTING

Doppelgangers play a huge role in predicting. Let’s see what it means first:

Doppelganger: an apparition or double of a living person.

Of course, we are not talking about looking exactly the same, but we are talking about correlating the data to find the most similar people in database to predict the future of that person.

Think about a sick person suffering from certain disease symptoms. Her age is 34, her height is 5’5, her weight is 132 lbs, she has no smoking or drinking habits, she had Pneumonia when she was seven. She lives in Kentucky.  If we run the analysis and find once upon a time 24 year old female who lived in Kentucky  with 5’5 height and around 132 lbs, with no smoking or drinking history who had Pneumonia when she was little, suffering from the same symptoms, we can predict what might happen to the patient. Because what happened to her doppelganger(s) will probably happen to her, as well.

ortizLet’s explain it with a real example: 35 year old baseball player Ortiz was about to be fired because of his old age. But, data analysts went through every single information about him and correlated to historical records. They found 20 ballplayers who played like he did when he was 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, and 33. Then see how Ortiz’s doppelgängers’ careers progressed. Data showed that Ortiz was about to enter the peak of his career. So Boston decided to be patient with is aging slugger. And they won. He took his team to World series at the age of 37, Ortiz was also voted for World Series MVP.

So how about A/B testing? What is it?

A/B Testing is basically testing two different controlled groups. Google wants to know how to get more people to click on ads on their sites, they may try two shades of blue in ads – one shade for Group A another for Group B. Then Google can compare these click rates. Facebook now runs a thousand A/B tests per day. A former Google employee Dan Siroker, used A/B testing for Barack Obama’s first presidential campaign. He A/B tested the campaign home page. In 2012, he used 3 different pictures (see below), 2 different slogans and 3 different ‘click buttons’ which one do you think got more clicks and so more donations?

IMG_1864

The winner was picture of Obama’s family and the button “Learn More”.

EDUCATION: What makes some places better at allowing a poor kid to have a pretty good life?

  • Areas that spend more on education provide a better chance to poor kids.
  • Places with more religious people and lower crime do better.
  • Places with more black people do worse. Interestingly, this has an effect on not just the black kids but on the white kids living there as well.
  • Places with lots of single mothers do worse.

To see which cities/states have the most successful people the author zoomed in names of the people who are baby boomers and who took a place in Wikipedia. Roughly 1 in 1,209 baby boomers (Born between 1946 and 1964) born in California reached Wikipedia with their success. Roughly 1 in 748 baby boomers born in Suffolk County, Massachusetts, where Boston is located, made it to Wikipedia. Be careful, not ‘went to school’ but ‘born’. The reason for this seems to be early exposure to innovation. Besides, New York City apparently produces notable journalists at the highest rate, Boston produces notable scientists at the highest rate and Los Angeles produces notable actors and actresses at the highest rate.

The greater the percentage of foreign born residents in an area, the higher the proportion of children born there who go on to notable success (Davidowitz’s note: Take that, Donald Trump!) (Blogger’s comment: Ditto that!)

Education spending did not correlate with rates of producing notable writers, artists, or business leaders.

What I found very motivational as a reader was on page 237. Even though you couldn’t finish the best school, you still have an equal chance to be as successful as those people who graduated from Harvard, MIT or Stanford. People adapt to their experience and people who are going to be successful find advantages in any situation. The factors hat make you successful are your talent and your drive.

________________________________________________________________________

Davidowitz also discusses other interesting topics, which I don’t mention here such as “who gets loans more easily, who doesn’t” or “How much the casinos let you lose” or what other jaw dropping data analyses are being used in marketing.

In his final words, he emphasizes that social science is becoming a real science (Blogger’s note: Finally!!! I was so tired of people not seeing social science as real science! Thank you Davidowitz!). And this new, real science is poised to improve our lives.

If a violent movie comes to a city, does crime go up or down? If more people are exposed to an ad, do more people use the product? If a baseball team wins when a boy is twenty, will he be more likely to root for them when he is forty? These are all clear questions with clear yes-or-no answers. And in the mountains of honest data, we can find them

This is the stuff of science, not pseudoscience.

IMG_1865

 

 

 

I strongly recommend this book! And after you read, please feel free to share your comments below 🙂

-Ece